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Open AccessArticle

Quickly Identifying High-Risk Variables of Ultrasonic Extraction Oil from Multi-Dimensional Risk Variable Patterns and a Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Methods on the Quality of Forsythia suspensa Seed Oil

1
National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)-Hakka TCM Resource Branch Center, School of Pharmacy, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou 341000, China
2
Key Laboratory of Preparation of Modern TCM, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi University of TCM, Nanchang 330004, China
3
Artemisinin Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Lisa Clodoveo and Filomena Corbo
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3445; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193445
Received: 24 August 2019 / Revised: 14 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction of Natural Products)
Generally, essential oils and components of interest are extracted from plants using organic solvent, distillation, ultrasound and supercritical extraction methods. Ultrasonic extraction (UE) has the advantage of high efficiency, but its process is complicated and it has numerous variables. In this study, an L18-Hunter experimental design was applied for the first time to investigate the practicability of applying UE to Forsythia suspensa seed oil. Six potential high-risk variables, including numerical and non-numeric types, were obtained from the risk analysis and their impacts on global yield and antioxidant activity were screened. Furthermore, oils obtained by different extraction processes (i.e., UE, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), soxhlet extraction (SE) and hydrodistillation extraction (HD)) were analyzed. A comparative study of these oils was characterized and compared by FT-IR, GC-MS and antioxidant activity. The obtained results show that the type of solvent, solvent-to-solid ratio, extraction power and time were the significant variables affecting the extraction yield, whereas antioxidant activity was only affected by the type of solvent. The regression coefficients of the yield and antioxidant activity models were 0.79 and 0.91, and the ANOVA of the models were 0.013 and <0.0001, respectively. Beta-Pinene was the main abundant component in the oils for the UE, SFE, SE and HD methods and the content was about 46%~52.4%. In conclusion, the L18-Hunter design could be used as an effective experimental design method for rapid screening of high-risk variables. Regarding extraction efficiency, chemical composition and biological activity, UE not only offered a robust Forsythia suspensa seed oil extraction process, but also provided a time- and cost-effective advantage to the food and pharmaceutical industry when compared to the SFE, SE and HD extraction processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Forsythia suspensa; ultrasonic extraction; L18-Hunter design; GC-MS analysis; antioxidant activity Forsythia suspensa; ultrasonic extraction; L18-Hunter design; GC-MS analysis; antioxidant activity
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Ming, L.; Huang, H.; Jiang, Y.; Cheng, G.; Zhang, D.; Li, Z. Quickly Identifying High-Risk Variables of Ultrasonic Extraction Oil from Multi-Dimensional Risk Variable Patterns and a Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Methods on the Quality of Forsythia suspensa Seed Oil. Molecules 2019, 24, 3445.

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