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Open AccessArticle

Structure–Activity Relationship of the Tyrosinase Inhibitors Kuwanon G, Mulberrofuran G, and Albanol B from Morus Species: A Kinetics and Molecular Docking Study

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Department of Food and Life Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
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Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061413
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Kuwanon G (KG) and benzofuran flavonoids such as mulberrofuran G (MG) and albanol B (AB) isolated from Morus sp. are reported to exhibit anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-inflammatory, fungicidal, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-tyrosinase properties. We investigated the inhibition of mono- and diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase by KG, MG, and AB. KG and MG displayed acceptable inhibition activity compared to kojic acid. AB did not show any activity up to 350 µM. MG displayed six-fold higher inhibition of l-tyrosine oxidation (IC50 = 6.35 ± 0.45 µM) compared to kojic acid (IC50 = 36.0 µM). Kinetic studies revealed that KG and MG inhibited monophenolase activity of tyrosinase in a competitive manner. Docking simulations of KG and MG demonstrated favorable binding energies with amino acid residues of the active sites of tyrosinase. Our investigation of the structure-activity relationship of the fused benzofuran flavonoids (MG vs. AB) implicated the methyl cyclohexene ring moiety in tyrosinase inhibition. The enzyme substrate and relative structural analyses demonstrated that KG and MG from Morus sp. could be useful natural tyrosinase inhibitors in foods or cosmetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Morus species; mulberrofuran G; kuwanon G; albanol B; mushroom tyrosinase; structure-activity relationship Morus species; mulberrofuran G; kuwanon G; albanol B; mushroom tyrosinase; structure-activity relationship
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Koirala, P.; Seong, S.H.; Zhou, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Jung, H.A.; Choi, J.S. Structure–Activity Relationship of the Tyrosinase Inhibitors Kuwanon G, Mulberrofuran G, and Albanol B from Morus Species: A Kinetics and Molecular Docking Study. Molecules 2018, 23, 1413.

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