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Open AccessArticle

Separation of Active Compounds from Food by-Product (Cocoa Shell) Using Subcritical Water Extraction

Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 20, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Taborska ulica 8, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1408;
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Large amounts of residues are produced in the food industries. The waste shells from cocoa processing are usually burnt for fuel or used as a mulch in gardens to add nutrients to soil and to suppress weeds. The objectives of this work were: (a) to separate valuable compounds from cocoa shell by applying sustainable green separation process—subcritical water extraction (SWE); (b) identification and quantification of active compounds, sugars and sugar degradation products in obtained extracts using HPLC; (c) characterization of the antioxidant activity of extracts; (d) optimization of separation process using response surface methodology (RSM). Depending on applied extraction conditions, different concentration of theobromine, caffeine, theophylline, epicatechin, catechin, chlorogenic acid and gallic acid were determined in the extracts obtained by subcritical water. Furthermore, mannose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose and fucose were detected as well as their important degradation products such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid, lactic acid and formic acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa shell; subcritical water extraction; active compounds cocoa shell; subcritical water extraction; active compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jokić, S.; Gagić, T.; Knez, Ž.; Šubarić, D.; Škerget, M. Separation of Active Compounds from Food by-Product (Cocoa Shell) Using Subcritical Water Extraction. Molecules 2018, 23, 1408.

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