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Graminex Pollen: Phenolic Pattern, Colorimetric Analysis and Protective Effects in Immortalized Prostate Cells (PC3) and Rat Prostate Challenged with LPS

Department of Pharmacy, G. D’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Department of Urology, University of Milan, ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, 20142 Milan, Italy
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya 42075, Turkey
Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1145;
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Secondary Metabolites)
PDF [1445 KB, uploaded 11 May 2018]


Prostatitis, a general term describing prostate inflammation, is a common disease that could be sustained by bacterial or non-bacterial infectious agents. The efficacy of herbal extracts with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects for blunting the burden of inflammation and oxidative stress, with possible improvements in clinical symptoms, is under investigation. Pollen extracts have been previously reported as promising agents in managing clinical symptoms related to prostatitis. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protective effects of Graminex pollen (GraminexTM, Deshler, OH, USA), a commercially available product based on standardized pollen extracts, in rat prostate specimens, ex vivo. In this context, we studied the putative mechanism of action of pollen on multiple inflammatory pathways, including the reduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), and malondialdehyde (MDA), whose activities were significantly increased by inflammatory stimuli. We characterized by means of chromatographic and colorimetric studies the composition of Graminex pollen to better correlate the activity of pollen on immortalized prostate cells (PC3), and in rat prostate specimens challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that Graminex pollen was able to reduce radical oxygen species (ROS) production by PC3 cells and MDA, NFκB mRNA, and PGE2 levels, in rat prostate specimens. According to our experimental evidence, Graminex pollen appears to be a promising natural product for the management of the inflammatory components in the prostate. View Full-Text
Keywords: pollen; PGE2; NFκB mRNA; phenolic pattern; colorimetric analysis; inflammation pollen; PGE2; NFκB mRNA; phenolic pattern; colorimetric analysis; inflammation

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Locatelli, M.; Macchione, N.; Ferrante, C.; Chiavaroli, A.; Recinella, L.; Carradori, S.; Zengin, G.; Cesa, S.; Leporini, L.; Leone, S.; Brunetti, L.; Menghini, L.; Orlando, G. Graminex Pollen: Phenolic Pattern, Colorimetric Analysis and Protective Effects in Immortalized Prostate Cells (PC3) and Rat Prostate Challenged with LPS. Molecules 2018, 23, 1145.

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