Next Article in Journal
Adsorptive Desulfurization of Model Gasoline by Using Different Zn Sources Exchanged NaY Zeolites
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Oxidative Stress on ABC Transporters: Contribution to Epilepsy Pharmacoresistance
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 8-Morpholinoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine Derivatives Bearing Phenylpyridine/Phenylpyrimidine-Carboxamides
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Technique
Review

Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind

1
Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, Frederick University, Nicosia 1036, Cyprus
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luciano Saso, László Dux, Grzegorz Wegrzyn and Tamás Csont
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020307
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry and Pharmacology of Modulators of Oxidative Stress)
Stress can be defined as the homeostatic, nonspecific defensive response of the organism to challenges. It is expressed by morphological, biochemical, and functional changes. In this review, we present biological and oxidative stress, as well as their interrelation. In addition to the mediation in biologic stress (central nervous, immune, and hormonal systems) and oxidative stress, the effect of these phenomena on xenobiotic metabolism and drug response is also examined. It is concluded that stress decreases drug response, a result which seems to be mainly attributed to the induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. A number of mechanisms are presented. Structure-activity studies are also discussed. Vitamin E, as well as two synthetic novel compounds, seem to reduce both oxidative and biological stress and, consequently, influence drug response and metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanosteroids; drug metabolism; drug response; drug toxicity; oxidative stress cyanosteroids; drug metabolism; drug response; drug toxicity; oxidative stress
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Pantelidou, M.; Tsiakitzis, K.; Rekka, E.A.; Kourounakis, P.N. Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind. Molecules 2017, 22, 307. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020307

AMA Style

Pantelidou M, Tsiakitzis K, Rekka EA, Kourounakis PN. Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind. Molecules. 2017; 22(2):307. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020307

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pantelidou, Maria, Karyofyllis Tsiakitzis, Eleni A. Rekka, and Panos N. Kourounakis 2017. "Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind" Molecules 22, no. 2: 307. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020307

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop