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Molecules 2017, 22(2), 307;

Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind

Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, Frederick University, Nicosia 1036, Cyprus
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luciano Saso, László Dux, Grzegorz Wegrzyn and Tamás Csont
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry and Pharmacology of Modulators of Oxidative Stress)
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Stress can be defined as the homeostatic, nonspecific defensive response of the organism to challenges. It is expressed by morphological, biochemical, and functional changes. In this review, we present biological and oxidative stress, as well as their interrelation. In addition to the mediation in biologic stress (central nervous, immune, and hormonal systems) and oxidative stress, the effect of these phenomena on xenobiotic metabolism and drug response is also examined. It is concluded that stress decreases drug response, a result which seems to be mainly attributed to the induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. A number of mechanisms are presented. Structure-activity studies are also discussed. Vitamin E, as well as two synthetic novel compounds, seem to reduce both oxidative and biological stress and, consequently, influence drug response and metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanosteroids; drug metabolism; drug response; drug toxicity; oxidative stress cyanosteroids; drug metabolism; drug response; drug toxicity; oxidative stress

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Pantelidou, M.; Tsiakitzis, K.; Rekka, E.A.; Kourounakis, P.N. Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind. Molecules 2017, 22, 307.

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