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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2192; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122192

Magnetic Marking and Intraoperative Detection of Primary Draining Lymph Nodes in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Additional Diagnostic Value

University Hospital for Urology, Klinikum Oldenburg, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg , Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine)
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Abstract

Sentinel lymph node dissection (sLND) using a magnetometer and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a tracer was successfully applied in prostate cancer (PCa). Radioisotope-guided sLND combined with extended pelvic LND (ePLND) achieved better node removal, increasing the number of affected nodes or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes outside the established ePLND template. We determined the diagnostic value of additional magnetometer-guided sLND after intraprostatic SPION-injection in high-risk PCa. This retrospective study included 104 high-risk PCa patients (PSA >20 ng/mL and/or Gleason score ≥ 8 and/or cT2c) from a prospective cohort who underwent radical prostatectomy with magnetometer-guided sLND and ePLND. The diagnostic accuracy of sLND was assessed using ePLND as a reference standard. Lymph node metastases were found in 61 of 104 patients (58.7%). sLND had a 100% diagnostic rate, 96.6% sensitivity, 95.6% specificity, 96.6% positive predictive value, 95.6% negative predictive value, 3.4% false negative rate, and 4.4% false positive rate (detecting lymph node metastases outside the ePLND template). These findings demonstrate the high sensitivity and additional diagnostic value of magnetometer-guided sLND, exceeding that of ePLND through the individualized extension of PLND or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes/lymph node metastases outside the established node template in high-risk PCa. View Full-Text
Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION); prostate cancer; sentinel node; magnetometer; lymphadenectomy superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION); prostate cancer; sentinel node; magnetometer; lymphadenectomy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Winter, A.; Engels, S.; Reinhardt, L.; Wasylow, C.; Gerullis, H.; Wawroschek, F. Magnetic Marking and Intraoperative Detection of Primary Draining Lymph Nodes in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Additional Diagnostic Value. Molecules 2017, 22, 2192.

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