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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 30;

Dysregulation of Cell Death and Its Epigenetic Mechanisms in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Changsha 410011, China
Department of Pathology and Center for Infection and Immunology, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chun Kwok Wong
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
PDF [978 KB, uploaded 27 December 2016]


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease involving multiple organs and tissues, which is characterized by the presence of excessive anti-nuclear autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of SLE has been intensively studied but remains far from clear. Increasing evidence has shown that the genetic susceptibilities and environmental factors-induced abnormalities in immune cells, dysregulation of apoptosis, and defects in the clearance of apoptotic materials contribute to the development of SLE. As the main source of auto-antigens, aberrant cell death may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of SLE. In this review, we summarize up-to-date research progress on different levels of cell death—including increasing rate of apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and defects in clearance of dying cells—and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms, especially epigenetic modifications, which may provide new insight in the potential development of therapeutic strategies for SLE. View Full-Text
Keywords: SLE; cell death; apoptosis; necrosis; autophagy; epigenetics SLE; cell death; apoptosis; necrosis; autophagy; epigenetics

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Wu, H.; Fu, S.; Zhao, M.; Lu, L.; Lu, Q. Dysregulation of Cell Death and Its Epigenetic Mechanisms in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Molecules 2017, 22, 30.

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