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Cytotoxic Compounds from Juglans sinensis Dode Display Anti-Proliferative Activity by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells

by 1,†, 2,†, 3,4, 1, 2, 2,5,* and 1,*
1
College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon 406-840, Korea
3
KM Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
4
Korean Medicine Life Science, University of Science & Technology, Daejeon 34054, Korea
5
Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Hospital, Incheon 405-760, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Derek J. McPhee and John A. Beutler
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21010120
Received: 18 November 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Juglans sinensis Dode (Juglandaceae) led to the isolation of two active compounds, 8-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (1) and 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2), together with 15 known compounds 317. All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 117 were tested for their cytotoxicity against the A549 human lung cancer cell line; compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant cytotoxicity and additionally had potent cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines, MCF7 (breast cancer), SNU423 (liver cancer), SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma), HeLa (cervical cancer), HCT116 (colorectal cancer), and A549 (lung cancer). In particular, breast, colon, and lung cancer cells were more sensitive to the treatment using compound 1. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed strong cytotoxic activity towards human breast cancer cells MCF7, HS578T, and T47D, but not towards MCF10A normal-like breast cells. They also inhibited the colony formation of MCF7, A549, and HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in MCF7 cells upon the treatment with compounds 1 and 2. The mechanism of cell death caused by compounds 1 and 2 may be attributed to the upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2. These findings suggest that compounds 1 and 2 may be regarded as potential therapeutic agents against cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Juglans sinensis Dode; Juglandaceae; 8-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; cytotoxicity; antiproliferative activity; apoptosis Juglans sinensis Dode; Juglandaceae; 8-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; cytotoxicity; antiproliferative activity; apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, Y.J.; Cui, J.; Lee, J.; Han, A.-R.; Lee, E.B.; Jang, H.H.; Seo, E.K. Cytotoxic Compounds from Juglans sinensis Dode Display Anti-Proliferative Activity by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 120. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21010120

AMA Style

Lee YJ, Cui J, Lee J, Han A-R, Lee EB, Jang HH, Seo EK. Cytotoxic Compounds from Juglans sinensis Dode Display Anti-Proliferative Activity by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells. Molecules. 2016; 21(1):120. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21010120

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Yoo J., Jun Cui, Jun Lee, Ah-Reum Han, Eun B. Lee, Ho H. Jang, and Eun K. Seo 2016. "Cytotoxic Compounds from Juglans sinensis Dode Display Anti-Proliferative Activity by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells" Molecules 21, no. 1: 120. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21010120

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