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Open AccessArticle

Antiviral, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of a BODIPY-Based Photosensitizer

1
Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8204, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7614, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. Rutledge
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10604-10621; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200610604
Received: 23 February 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) employing the BODIPY-based photosensitizer 2,6-diiodo-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-4,4′-difluoro-boradiazaindacene (DIMPy-BODIPY) was explored in an in vitro assay against six species of bacteria (eight total strains), three species of yeast, and three viruses as a complementary approach to their current drug-based or non-existent treatments. Our best results achieved a noteworthy 5–6 log unit reduction in CFU at 0.1 μM for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-2913), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (ATCC-44), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC-2320), a 4–5 log unit reduction for Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC-19606 (0.25 μM), multidrug resistant A. baumannii ATCC-1605 (0.1 μM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-97 (0.5 μM), and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC-2146 (1 μM), and a 3 log unit reduction for Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 (ATCC-700084). A 5 log unit reduction in CFU was observed for Candida albicans ATCC-90028 (1 μM) and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC-64538 (0.5 μM), and a 3 log unit reduction was noted for Candida glabrata ATCC-15545 (1 μM). Infectivity was reduced by 6 log units in dengue 1 (0.1 μM), by 5 log units (0.5 μM) in vesicular stomatitis virus, and by 2 log units (5 μM) in human adenovirus-5. Overall, the results demonstrate that DIMPy-BODIPY exhibits antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal photodynamic inactivation at nanomolar concentrations and short illumination times. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen; antibacterial; antiviral; antifungal; photobiocidal photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen; antibacterial; antiviral; antifungal; photobiocidal
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Carpenter, B.L.; Situ, X.; Scholle, F.; Bartelmess, J.; Weare, W.W.; Ghiladi, R.A. Antiviral, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of a BODIPY-Based Photosensitizer. Molecules 2015, 20, 10604-10621.

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