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Identification of Denatured Biological Tissues Based on Time-Frequency Entropy and Refined Composite Multi-Scale Weighted Permutation Entropy during HIFU Treatment

School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
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Entropy 2019, 21(7), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21070666
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Information Theory in Biomedical Data Mining)
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Abstract

Identification of denatured biological tissue is crucial to high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. It is not easy for intercepting ultrasonic scattered echo signals from HIFU treatment region. Therefore, this paper employed time-frequency entropy based on generalized S-transform (GST) to intercept ultrasonic echo signals. First, the time-frequency spectra of ultrasonic echo signal is obtained by GST, which is concentrated around the real instantaneous frequency of the signal. Then the time-frequency entropy is calculated based on time-frequency spectra. The experimental results indicate that the time-frequency entropy of ultrasonic echo signal will be abnormally high when ultrasonic signal travels across the boundary between normal region and treatment region in tissues. Ultrasonic scattered echo signals from treatment region can be intercepted by time-frequency entropy. In addition, the refined composite multi-scale weighted permutation entropy (RCMWPE) is proposed to evaluate the complexity of nonlinear time series. Comparing with multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE) and multi-scale weighted permutation entropy (MWPE), RCMWPE not only measures complexity of signal including amplitude information, but also improves the stability and reliability of multi-scale entropy. The RCMWPE and MPE are applied to 300 cases of actual ultrasonic scattered echo signals (including 150 cases in normal status and 150 cases in denatured status). It is found that the RCMWPE and MPE values of denatured tissues are higher than those of the normal tissues. Both RCMWPE and MPE can be used to distinguish normal tissues and denatured tissues. However, there are fewer feature points in the overlap region between RCMWPE of denatured tissues and normal tissues compared with MPE. The intra-class distance and the inter-class distance of RCMWPE are less and greater respectively than MPE. The difference between denatured tissues and normal tissues is more obvious when RCMWPE is used as the characteristic parameter. The results of this study will be helpful to guide doctors to obtain more accurate assessment of treatment effect during HIFU treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIFU; time-frequency entropy; RCMWPE; ultrasonic scattered echo signals HIFU; time-frequency entropy; RCMWPE; ultrasonic scattered echo signals
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Liu, B.; Qian, S.; Hu, W. Identification of Denatured Biological Tissues Based on Time-Frequency Entropy and Refined Composite Multi-Scale Weighted Permutation Entropy during HIFU Treatment. Entropy 2019, 21, 666.

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