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Entropy 2019, 21(3), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21030237

Investigating the Effect of Intrinsic Motivation on Alpha Desynchronization Using Sample Entropy

1
Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
2
Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
3
Biological Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 20th Anniversary of Entropy - Approximate and Sample Entropy)
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Abstract

The effect of motivation and attention could play an important role in providing personalized learning services and improving learners toward smart education. These effects on brain activity could be quantified by EEG and open the path to analyze the efficiency of services during the learning process. Many studies reported the appearance of EEG alpha desynchronization during the attention period, resulting in better cognitive performance. Motivation was also found to be reflected in EEG. This study investigated the effect of intrinsic motivation on the alpha desynchronization pattern in terms of the complexity of time series data. The sample entropy method was used to quantify the complexity of event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) of EEG data. We found that when participants can remember the stimulus, ERSP was significantly less complex than when they cannot. However, the effect of intrinsic motivation cannot be defined by using sample entropy directly. ERSP’s main effect showed that motivation affects the complexity of ERSP data; longer continuous alpha desynchronization patterns were found when participants were motivated. Therefore, we introduced an algorithm to identify the longest continuous alpha desynchronization pattern. The method allowed us to understand that intrinsic motivation has an effect on recognition at the frontal and left parietal area directly. View Full-Text
Keywords: sample entropy; ERSP; intrinsic motivation; attention; electroencephalography (EEG) sample entropy; ERSP; intrinsic motivation; attention; electroencephalography (EEG)
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Phukhachee, T.; Maneewongvatana, S.; Angsuwatanakul, T.; Iramina, K.; Kaewkamnerdpong, B. Investigating the Effect of Intrinsic Motivation on Alpha Desynchronization Using Sample Entropy. Entropy 2019, 21, 237.

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