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Entropy 2019, 21(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020194

Entropy Mapping Approach for Functional Reentry Detection in Atrial Fibrillation: An In-Silico Study

1
Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional (GIMSC), Universidad de San Buenaventura, 050010 Medellín, Colombia
2
Materiales Nanoestructurados y Biomodelación (MATBIOM), Universidad de Medellín, 050026 Medellín, Colombia
3
Grupo de Investigación e Innovación Biomédica (GI2B), Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, 050034 Medellín, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 20th Anniversary of Entropy - Approximate and Sample Entropy)
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Abstract

Catheter ablation of critical electrical propagation sites is a promising tool for reducing the recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF). The spatial identification of the arrhythmogenic mechanisms sustaining AF requires the evaluation of electrograms (EGMs) recorded over the atrial surface. This work aims to characterize functional reentries using measures of entropy to track and detect a reentry core. To this end, different AF episodes are simulated using a 2D model of atrial tissue. Modified Courtemanche human action potential and Fenton–Karma models are implemented. Action potential propagation is modeled by a fractional diffusion equation, and virtual unipolar EGM are calculated. Episodes with stable and meandering rotors, figure-of-eight reentry, and disorganized propagation with multiple reentries are generated. Shannon entropy ( S h E n ), approximate entropy ( A p E n ), and sample entropy ( S a m p E n ) are computed from the virtual EGM, and entropy maps are built. Phase singularity maps are implemented as references. The results show that A p E n and S a m p E n maps are able to detect and track the reentry core of rotors and figure-of-eight reentry, while the S h E n results are not satisfactory. Moreover, A p E n and S a m p E n consistently highlight a reentry core by high entropy values for all of the studied cases, while the ability of S h E n to characterize the reentry core depends on the propagation dynamics. Such features make the A p E n and S a m p E n maps attractive tools for the study of AF reentries that persist for a period of time that is similar to the length of the observation window, and reentries could be interpreted as AF-sustaining mechanisms. Further research is needed to determine and fully understand the relation of these entropy measures with fibrillation mechanisms other than reentries. View Full-Text
Keywords: atrial fibrillation; functional reentry; entropy maps; fractionated electrograms; Shannon entropy; approximate entropy; sample entropy atrial fibrillation; functional reentry; entropy maps; fractionated electrograms; Shannon entropy; approximate entropy; sample entropy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ugarte, J.P.; Tobón, C.; Orozco-Duque, A. Entropy Mapping Approach for Functional Reentry Detection in Atrial Fibrillation: An In-Silico Study. Entropy 2019, 21, 194.

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