Next Article in Journal
High Density Nodes in the Chaotic Region of 1D Discrete Maps
Next Article in Special Issue
Traffic Offloading in Unlicensed Spectrum for 5G Cellular Network: A Two-Layer Game Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Exact Renormalization Groups As a Form of Entropic Dynamics
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2018, 20(1), 27;

Strategic Information Processing from Behavioural Data in Iterated Games

Complex Systems Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and IT, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory in Game Theory)
Full-Text   |   PDF [10006 KB, uploaded 4 January 2018]   |  


Iterated games are an important framework of economic theory and application, at least since the original work of Axelrod’s computational tournaments of the early 80’s. Recent theoretical results have shown that games (the economic context) and game theory (the decision-making process) are both formally equivalent to computational logic gates. Here these results are extended to behavioural data obtained from an experiment in which rhesus monkeys sequentially played thousands of the “matching pennies” game, an empirical example similar to Axelrod’s tournaments in which algorithms played against one another. The results show that the monkeys exhibit a rich variety of behaviours, both between and within subjects when playing opponents of varying complexity. Despite earlier suggestions, there is no clear evidence that the win-stay, lose-switch strategy is used, however there is evidence of non-linear strategy-based interactions between the predictors of future choices. It is also shown that there is consistent evidence across protocols and across individuals that the monkeys extract non-markovian information, i.e., information from more than just the most recent state of the game. This work shows that the use of information theory in game theory can test important hypotheses that would otherwise be more difficult to extract using traditional statistical methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: behavioural economics; game theory; synergy; transfer entropy; matching pennies; cognitive strategies behavioural economics; game theory; synergy; transfer entropy; matching pennies; cognitive strategies

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Harré, M.S. Strategic Information Processing from Behavioural Data in Iterated Games. Entropy 2018, 20, 27.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top