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Molecules, Volume 18, Issue 6 (June 2013), Pages 6128-7335

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Open AccessArticle Herb-Drug Interaction of Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil in Rats
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7323-7335; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067323
Received: 9 April 2013 / Revised: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim is one of the herbs used to treat erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction in Western Medicine. This study evaluates the herbal-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum
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Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim is one of the herbs used to treat erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction in Western Medicine. This study evaluates the herbal-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The rat plasma was sampled from each anesthetized rat after pretreatment with 3-days Epimedium sagittatum extract (1/2 g/kg/day) and intravenous injection with sildenafil (10/30 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of sildenafil (10 mg/kg) was significantly decreased in groups that received a high dose of Epimedium sagittatum extract. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that there was significant herb-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil at low and high daily doses, suggesting co-administration use of Epimedium sagittatum extract and sildenafil in clinical practice should be prevented due to possible herb-drug interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids from Alstonia rupestris with Cytotoxic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antifungal Activities
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7309-7322; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067309
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 9 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the leaves of Alstonia scholaris afforded seven new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids: scholarisins I-VII (1-7), and three known compounds: (3R,5S,7R,15R,16R,19E)-scholarisine F (
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Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the leaves of Alstonia scholaris afforded seven new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids: scholarisins I-VII (1-7), and three known compounds: (3R,5S,7R,15R,16R,19E)-scholarisine F (8), 3-epi-dihydro- corymine (9), and (E)-16-formyl-5α-methoxystrictamine (10). Structural elucidation of all the compounds was accomplished by spectral methods such as 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, UV, and HRESIMS. The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity against seven tumor cell lines, anti-inflammatory activities against Cox-1 and Cox-2, and antifungal potential against five species of fungi. Compounds 1, 6, and 10 exhibited significant cytotoxicities against all the tested tumor cell lines with IC50 values of less than 30 μM and selective inhibition of Cox-2 comparable with the standard drug NS-398 (>90%). Additionally, 1, 2, 3 and 8 showed antifungal activity against two fungal strains (G. pulicaris and C. nicotianae). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Chemical Reactions Catalyzed by Metalloporphyrin-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7279-7308; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067279
Received: 7 May 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthetic versatility and the potential application of metalloporphyrins (MP) in different fields have aroused researchers’ interest in studying these complexes, in an attempt to mimic biological systems such as cytochrome P-450. Over the last 40 years, synthetic MPs have been mainly used
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The synthetic versatility and the potential application of metalloporphyrins (MP) in different fields have aroused researchers’ interest in studying these complexes, in an attempt to mimic biological systems such as cytochrome P-450. Over the last 40 years, synthetic MPs have been mainly used as catalysts for homogeneous or heterogeneous chemical reactions. To employ them in heterogeneous catalysis, chemists have prepared new MP-based solids by immobilizing MP onto rigid inorganic supports, a strategy that affords hybrid inorganic-organic materials. More recently, materials obtained by supramolecular assembly processes and containing MPs as building blocks have been applied in a variety of areas, like gas storage, photonic devices, separation, molecular sensing, magnets, and heterogeneous catalysis, among others. These coordination polymers, known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), contain organic ligands or complexes connected by metal ions or clusters, which give rise to a 1-, 2- or 3-D network. These kinds of materials presents large surface areas, Brønsted or redox sites, and high porosity, all of which are desirable features in catalysts with potential use in heterogeneous phases. Building MOFs based on MP is a good way to obtain solid catalysts that offer the advantages of bioinspired systems and zeolitic materials. In this mini review, we will adopt a historical approach to present the most relevant MP-based MOFs applicable to catalytic reactions such as oxidation, reduction, insertion of functional groups, and exchange of organic functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle A Fully Automated Radiosynthesis of [18F]Fluoroethyl-Diprenorphine on a Single Module by Use of SPE Cartridges for Preparation of High Quality 2-[18F]Fluoroethyl Tosylate
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7271-7278; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067271
Received: 1 May 2013 / Revised: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a new method for automated production of 2-[18F]fluoroethyl tosylate ([18F]FETos) that enables 18F-alkylation to provide PET tracers with high chemical purity. The method is based on the removal of excess ethylene glycol bistosylate precursor by
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We have developed a new method for automated production of 2-[18F]fluoroethyl tosylate ([18F]FETos) that enables 18F-alkylation to provide PET tracers with high chemical purity. The method is based on the removal of excess ethylene glycol bistosylate precursor by precipitation and subsequent filtration and purification of the filtrate by means of solid phase extraction cartridges (SPE). The method is integrated to a single synthesis module and thereby provides the advantage over previous methods of not requiring HPLC purification, as demonstrated by the full radiosynthesis of the potent opioid receptor PET tracer [18F]fluoroethyldiprenorphine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PET Chemistry in Molecular Imaging)
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Open AccessReview Natural Products as a Source of Anti-Inflammatory Agents Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7253-7270; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067253
Received: 27 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accumulating epidemiological and clinical study indicates that inflammation is a significant risk factor to develop various human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis. Suppressing inflammation is therefore important to control or prevent various diseases.
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Accumulating epidemiological and clinical study indicates that inflammation is a significant risk factor to develop various human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis. Suppressing inflammation is therefore important to control or prevent various diseases. Among them, IBD is one of the major problems affecting people worldwide. IBD affects at least one in a thousand persons in many Western countries. Various natural products have been shown to safely suppress pro-inflammatory pathway and control IBD. In vivo and/or in vitro studies indicate that anti-IBD effects of natural products occur by inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), master transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by improving the antioxidant activity. In this review, we summarize recent research focused on IBD and the effects that natural products have on IBD factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of the Controlled-Release Properties of Chitosan Membranes by Crosslinking with Suberoyl Chloride
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7239-7252; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067239
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel crosslinking agent, suberoyl chloride, was used to crosslink N-phthaloyl acylated chitosan and improves the properties of chitosan membranes. Membranes with different crosslinking degrees were synthesized. The derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13C solid state nuclear
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A novel crosslinking agent, suberoyl chloride, was used to crosslink N-phthaloyl acylated chitosan and improves the properties of chitosan membranes. Membranes with different crosslinking degrees were synthesized. The derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which indicated that the crosslinking degrees ranged from 0 to 7.4%. The permeabilities of various plant nutrients, including macroelements (N, P, K), microelements (Zn2+ and Cu2+), and a plant growth regulator (naphthylacetic acid), were varied by moderate changes in crosslinking degree, indicating that the controlled-release properties can be regulated in this way. The film-forming ability of native chitosan was maintained, whilst mechanical properties, hydrophobicity and controlled permeability were improved. These dramatic improvements occurred with a small amount of added suberoyl chloride; excessive crosslinking led to membranes with unwanted poor permeability. Thus, both the mechanical properties and permeability of the crosslinked membrane can be optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plant Flavors and Fragrances
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7194-7238; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067194
Received: 15 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO2, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic
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Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO2, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Effect of Stichopus japonicus Acid Mucopolysaccharide on Experimental Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7179-7193; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067179
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (4360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) is an important biologically active compound that can be extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber. The present study investigated the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects of SJAMP in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats.
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Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) is an important biologically active compound that can be extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber. The present study investigated the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects of SJAMP in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats. Three doses of SJAMP (17.5 mg/kg, 35 mg/kg, and 70 mg/kg administered 5 days/week via oral gavage) were given to rats with diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. SJAMP treatment significantly inhibited DEN-induced HCC by reducing both the number and mean volume of nodules, decreasing serum a-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in liver, and increasing p21 expression. Furthermore, SJAMP decreased the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and TNF-α and increased serum IL-2. SJAMP administration also improved indices of spleen and thymus function and improved both macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell-mediated tumoricidal activity. Moreover, CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte levels recovered significantly and the CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio normalized in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, SJAMP effectively inhibited the growth of HCC through the stimulation of immune organs and tissue proliferation, leading to the enhancement of cellular immunity pathways in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Radiolabelling of DOTA-Linked Glutamine Analogues with 67,68Ga as Markers for Increased Glutamine Metabolism in Tumour Cells
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7160-7178; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067160
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DOTA-linked glutamine analogues with a C6- alkyl and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) chain between the chelating group and the L-glutamine moiety were synthesised and labelled with 67,68Ga using established methods. High yields were achieved for the radiolabelling of the molecules with both
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DOTA-linked glutamine analogues with a C6- alkyl and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) chain between the chelating group and the L-glutamine moiety were synthesised and labelled with 67,68Ga using established methods. High yields were achieved for the radiolabelling of the molecules with both radionuclides (>90%), although conversion of the commercially available 67Ga-citrate to the chloride species was a requirement for consistent high radiochemical yields. The generator produced 68Ga was in the [68Ga(OH)4] form. The 67Ga complexes and the 67Ga complexes were demonstrated to be stable in PBS buffer for a week. Uptake studies were performed with longer lived 67Ga analogues against four tumour cell lines, as well as uptake inhibition studies against L-glutamine, and two known amino acid transporter inhibitors. Marginal uptake was exhibited in the PEG variant radio-complex, and inhibition studies indicate this uptake is via a non-targeted amino acid pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PET Chemistry in Molecular Imaging)
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Open AccessReview Applications of Azide-Based Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry in Glycobiology
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7145-7159; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067145
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 12 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Click chemistry is a powerful chemical reaction with excellent bioorthogonality features: biocompatible, rapid and highly specific in biological environments. For glycobiology, bioorthogonal click chemistry has created a new method for glycan non-invasive imaging in living systems, selective metabolic engineering, and offered an elite
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Click chemistry is a powerful chemical reaction with excellent bioorthogonality features: biocompatible, rapid and highly specific in biological environments. For glycobiology, bioorthogonal click chemistry has created a new method for glycan non-invasive imaging in living systems, selective metabolic engineering, and offered an elite chemical handle for biological manipulation and glycomics studies. Especially the [3 + 2] dipolar cycloadditions of azides with strained alkynes and the Staudinger ligation of azides and triarylphosphines have been widely used among the extant click reactions. This review focuses on the azide-based bioorthogonal click chemistry, describing the characteristics and development of these reactions, introducing some recent applications in glycobiology research, especially in glycan metabolic engineering, including glycan non-invasive imaging, glycomics studies and viral surface manipulation for drug discovery as well as other applications like activity-based protein profiling and carbohydrate microarrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Click Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Dendrimers with Amphiphilic Surface and Their Interactions with Phospholipids — Insights from Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7120-7144; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067120
Received: 9 April 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of new peptide dendrimers with amphiphilic surface, designed around a dendronized ornithine (Orn) core were synthesized and characterized by ESI-MS, 1H-, 13C- NMR, and CD spectrometry. An improved antimicrobial potency against S. aureus and E. coli was detected as
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A series of new peptide dendrimers with amphiphilic surface, designed around a dendronized ornithine (Orn) core were synthesized and characterized by ESI-MS, 1H-, 13C- NMR, and CD spectrometry. An improved antimicrobial potency against S. aureus and E. coli was detected as a result of an increased charge, higher branching and variable lipophilicity of the residues located at the C-terminus. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values indicated that the selected dendrimers were not sensitive to the physiological concentration of Na+ and K+ ions (100 mM), but expressed reduced potency at 10 mM concentration of Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. Circular dichroism (CD) curves measured under various conditions revealed structure and solvent-dependent curve evolution. ESI-MS studies of gas-phase interactions between selected dendrimers and both anionic (DMPG) and neutral (DMPC) phospholipids revealed the presence of variously charged dendrimer/phospholipid aggregates with 1:1 to 1:5 stoichiometry. The collision-induced fragmentation (CID) of the most abundant [dendrimer/phospholipid]2+ ions of the 1:1 stoichiometry demonstrated that the studied dendrimers formed stronger complexes with anionic DMPG. Both phospholipids have higher affinity towards dendrimers with a more compact structure. Higher differences in CID energy necessary for dissociation of 50% of the complex formed by dendrimers with DMPG vs. DMPC (DCID50) correlate with a lower hemotoxicity. Mass spectrometry results suggest that for a particular group of compounds the DCID50 might be one of the important factors explaining selectivity of antimicrobial peptides and their branched analogs targeting the bacterial membrane. Both circular dichroism and mass spectrometry studies demonstrated that dendrimers of Nα- and Nε-series possess a different conformation in solution and different affinity to model phospholipids, what might influence their specific microbicidal mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers in Medicine and Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Reductive 13C-Methylation of Lysines to Enhance the Sensitivity of Conventional NMR Methods
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7103-7119; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067103
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
NMR is commonly used to investigate macromolecular interactions. However, sensitivity problems hamper its use for studying such interactions at low physiologically relevant concentrations. At high concentrations, proteins or peptides tend to aggregate. In order to overcome this problem, we make use of reductive
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NMR is commonly used to investigate macromolecular interactions. However, sensitivity problems hamper its use for studying such interactions at low physiologically relevant concentrations. At high concentrations, proteins or peptides tend to aggregate. In order to overcome this problem, we make use of reductive 13C-methylation to study protein interactions at low micromolar concentrations. Methyl groups in dimethyl lysines are degenerate with one 13CH3 signal arising from two carbons and six protons, as compared to one carbon and three protons in aliphatic amino acids. The improved sensitivity allows us to study protein-protein or protein-peptide interactions at very low micromolar concentrations. We demonstrate the utility of this method by studying the interaction between the post-translationally lipidated hypervariable region of a human proto-oncogenic GTPase K-Ras and a calcium sensor protein calmodulin. Calmodulin specifically binds K-Ras and modulates its downstream signaling. This binding specificity is attributed to the unique lipidated hypervariable region of K-Ras. At low micromolar concentrations, the post-translationally modified hypervariable region of K-Ras aggregates and binds calmodulin in a non-specific manner, hence conventional NMR techniques cannot be used for studying this interaction, however, upon reductively methylating the lysines of calmodulin, we detected signals of the lipidated hypervariable region of K-Ras at physiologically relevant nanomolar concentrations. Thus, we utilize 13C-reductive methylation of lysines to enhance the sensitivity of conventional NMR methods for studying protein interactions at low concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR of Proteins and Small Biomolecules)
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Open AccessArticle New Resveratrol Oligomer Derivatives from the Roots of Rheum lhasaense
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7093-7102; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067093
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new resveratrol trimer derivatives, named rheumlhasol A (1) and rheumlhasol B (2) were isolated from the methanolic extract of roots of Rheum lhasaense A. J. Li et P. K. Hsiao together with four known resveratrol dimer derivatives, including
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Two new resveratrol trimer derivatives, named rheumlhasol A (1) and rheumlhasol B (2) were isolated from the methanolic extract of roots of Rheum lhasaense A. J. Li et P. K. Hsiao together with four known resveratrol dimer derivatives, including maximol A (3), gnetin C (4), e-viniferin (5), and pallidol (6). The structures were determined by combined spectroscopic methods and by comparison of their spectral data with those reported in the literature. All the compounds isolated from R. lhasaense were tested for their ability to scavenge1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disperse Dyes Based on Aminothiophenes: Their Dyeing Applications on Polyester Fabrics and Their Antimicrobial Activity
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7081-7092; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067081
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of monoazo disperse dyes derived from arylazothienopyridazines were synthesized. Fastness properties of dyed polyester samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness and moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized dyes
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A series of monoazo disperse dyes derived from arylazothienopyridazines were synthesized. Fastness properties of dyed polyester samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness and moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Vortex-Induced Alignment of a Water Soluble Supramolecular Nanofiber Composed of an Amphiphilic Dendrimer
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7071-7080; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067071
Received: 14 May 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have synthesized a novel amphiphilic naphthalene imide bearing a cationic dendrimer wedge (NID). NID molecules in water self-assemble to form a two-dimensional ribbon, which further coils to give a linear supramolecular nanofiber. The sample solution showed linear dichroism (LD) upon stirring of
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We have synthesized a novel amphiphilic naphthalene imide bearing a cationic dendrimer wedge (NID). NID molecules in water self-assemble to form a two-dimensional ribbon, which further coils to give a linear supramolecular nanofiber. The sample solution showed linear dichroism (LD) upon stirring of the solution, where NID nanofibers dominantly align at the center of vortex by hydrodynamic interaction with the downward torsional flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers in Medicine and Biotechnology)
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