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Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7004-7022; doi:10.3390/molecules18067004
Article

Optimal Binary Solvent Extraction System for Phenolic Antioxidants from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) Fruit

1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
 and 2,*
1 School of Hospitality, Tourism and Culinary Arts, KDU University College, Jalan SS 22/41, Damansara Jaya, 47400 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 3 Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 4 Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 5 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, No.1, Jalan Menara Gading, UCSI Heights, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2013 / Revised: 26 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
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Abstract

Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.
Keywords: mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia); total phenolic content (TPC); total flavonoid content (TFC); 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity; 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia); total phenolic content (TPC); total flavonoid content (TFC); 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity; 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Thoo, Y.Y.; Ho, S.K.; Abas, F.; Lai, O.M.; Ho, C.W.; Tan, C.P. Optimal Binary Solvent Extraction System for Phenolic Antioxidants from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) Fruit. Molecules 2013, 18, 7004-7022.

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