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Special Issue "Flavors and Fragrances"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Derek J. McPhee

Senior Director, Technology Strategy, Amyris, Inc., 5885 Hollis St, Suite 100, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
Fax: +1 510 225 2645
Interests: organic synthesis; medicinal chemistry; biotechnology

Special Issue Information

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Volatile Compounds Profile of Sous-Vide Cooked Pork Cheeks as Affected by Cooking Conditions (Vacuum Packaging, Temperature and Time)
Molecules 2013, 18(10), 12538-12547; doi:10.3390/molecules181012538
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 7 October 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C), time (5 or 12 h) and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged). As [...] Read more.
The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C), time (5 or 12 h) and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged). As a general rule, the VOCs originating from lipid degradation were positively affected by the cooking temperature and negatively by the cooking time, reaching the highest amounts in pork cheeks cooked at 80 °C during 5 h and the lowest in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h. On the contrary, VOCs originated from amino acids and Maillard reactions were positively affected by both factors. The proportion between lipid degradation and amino acids reactions was estimated by the hexanal/3-methylbutanal ratio, which reached its highest values in samples cooked at 60 °C during 5 h in the presence of air and the lowest values in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h, regardless of the vacuum status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas
Molecules 2013, 18(8), 10024-10041; doi:10.3390/molecules180810024
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for [...] Read more.
This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessArticle Carvacrol: From Ancient Flavoring to Neuromodulatory Agent
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 6161-6172; doi:10.3390/molecules18066161
Received: 10 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oregano and thyme essential oils are used for therapeutic, aromatic and gastronomic purposes due to their richness in active substances, like carvacrol; however, the effects of the latter on the central nervous system have been poorly investigated. The aim of our study [...] Read more.
Oregano and thyme essential oils are used for therapeutic, aromatic and gastronomic purposes due to their richness in active substances, like carvacrol; however, the effects of the latter on the central nervous system have been poorly investigated. The aim of our study was to define the effects of carvacrol on brain neurochemistry and behavioural outcome in rats. Biogenic amine content in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after chronic or acute oral carvacrol administration was measured. Animals were assessed by a forced swimming test. Carvacrol, administered for seven consecutive days (12.5 mg/kg p.o.), was able to increase dopamine and serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. When single doses were used (150 and 450 mg/kg p.o.), dopamine content was increased in the prefrontal cortex at both dose levels. On the contrary, a significant dopamine reduction in hippocampus of animals treated with 450 mg/kg of carvacrol was found. Acute carvacrol administration only significantly reduced serotonin content in either the prefrontal cortex or in the hippocampus at the highest dose. Moreover, acute carvacrol was ineffective in producing changes in the forced swimming test. Our data suggest that carvacrol is a brain-active molecule that clearly influences neuronal activity through modulation of neurotransmitters. If regularly ingested in low concentrations, it might determine feelings of well-being and could possibly have positive reinforcer effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception
Molecules 2013, 18(5), 6035-6056; doi:10.3390/molecules18056035
Received: 22 February 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells
Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5736-5748; doi:10.3390/molecules18055736
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 29 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As part of a program aiming at the selection of yeast strains which might be of interest as sources of natural flavours and fragrances, the bioreduction of (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal by whole-cells of non-conventional yeasts (NCYs) belonging to [...] Read more.
As part of a program aiming at the selection of yeast strains which might be of interest as sources of natural flavours and fragrances, the bioreduction of (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal by whole-cells of non-conventional yeasts (NCYs) belonging to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Lindnera, Nakaseomyces, Vanderwaltozyma and Wickerhamomyces was studied. Volatiles produced were sampled by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the compounds were analysed and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Yields (expressed as % of biotransformation) varied in dependence of the strain. The reduction of both (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal were catalyzed by some ene-reductases (ERs) and/or carbonyl reductases (CRs), which determined the formation of (1R,4R)-dihydrocarvone and (1R)-myrtenol respectively, as main flavouring products. The potential of NCYs as novel whole-cell biocatalysts for selective biotransformation of electron-poor alkenes for producing flavours and fragrances of industrial interest is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Volatile Components in Makgeolli, a Traditional Korean Rice Wine, with or without Pasteurization, During Storage
Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5317-5325; doi:10.3390/molecules18055317
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 8 May 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes in the volatile components of unpasteurized and pasteurized makgeolli during 30 days of storage were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). A total of 11 odor-active compounds such as 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid [...] Read more.
Changes in the volatile components of unpasteurized and pasteurized makgeolli during 30 days of storage were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). A total of 11 odor-active compounds such as 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid (isovaleric acid), 2-methylbutanoic acid, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), 2-phenylethanol, ethyl decanoate, ethyl dodecanoate, and ethyl tetradecanoate were determined in both the pasteurized and unpasteurized makgeolli during 30 days of storage. Although there were no significant differences in the concentrations of odor-active compounds at the initial storage time, most of odor-active compounds were more significantly increased in unpasteurized makgeolli compared to the pasteurized one during the storage period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessArticle Volatile and Amino Acid Profiling of Dry Cured Hams from Different Swine Breeds and Processing Methods
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 3927-3947; doi:10.3390/molecules18043927
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 28 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The flavor of dry cured ham explains the high appreciation of this product and it determines consumer acceptance. Volatile compounds provide valuable information about the odor and sensory quality of dry cured hams. Since amino acids are the origin of some volatile [...] Read more.
The flavor of dry cured ham explains the high appreciation of this product and it determines consumer acceptance. Volatile compounds provide valuable information about the odor and sensory quality of dry cured hams. Since amino acids are the origin of some volatile compounds of dry cured ham, the volatile and amino acid compositions of forty-one dry cured hams from Spain and France were determined to establish associations between them. The samples included different pig breeds (non Iberian vs. Iberian), which were additionally affected by different maturation times and feeding types (acorn vs. fodder). Results showed that 20 volatile compounds were able to distinguish Iberian and non Iberian hams, and 16 of those had relevant sensory impact according to their odor activity values. 3-Methylbutanol, 2-heptanol and hexanal were among the most concentrated volatile compounds. In the case of non-volatile compounds, the concentrations of amino acids were generally higher in Iberian hams, and all the amino acids were able to distinguish Iberian from non Iberian hams with the exception of tryptophan and asparagine. A strong correlation of some amino acids with volatile compounds was found in the particular case of alcohols and aldehydes when only Iberian hams were considered. The high correlation values found in some cases proved that proteolysis plays an important role in aroma generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessArticle Whole-tree Agarwood-Inducing Technique: An Efficient Novel Technique for Producing High-Quality Agarwood in Cultivated Aquilaria sinensis Trees
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3086-3106; doi:10.3390/molecules18033086
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 22 January 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agarwood is the fragrant resin-infused wood derived from the wounded trees of Aquilaria species. It is a valuable non-timber forest product used in fragrances and as medicine. Reforestation for Aquilaria trees in combination with artificial agarwood-inducing methods serves as a way to [...] Read more.
Agarwood is the fragrant resin-infused wood derived from the wounded trees of Aquilaria species. It is a valuable non-timber forest product used in fragrances and as medicine. Reforestation for Aquilaria trees in combination with artificial agarwood-inducing methods serves as a way to supply agarwood and conserve of wild Aquilaria stock. However, the existing agarwood-inducing methods produce poor-quality agarwood at low yield. Our study evaluated a novel technique for producing agarwood in cultivated Aquilaria trees, called the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (Agar-Wit). Ten different agarwood inducers were used for comparison of Agar-Wit with three existing agarwood-inducing methods. For Aquilaria trees treated with these ten inducers, agarwood formed and spread throughout the entire tree from the transfusion point in the trunk to the roots and branches of the whole tree. Agarwood yield per tree reached 2,444.83 to 5,860.74 g, which is 4 to 28 times higher than that by the existing agarwood-inducing methods. Furthermore, this agarwood derived from Agar-Wit induction was found to have a higher quality compared with the existing methods, and similar to that of wild agarwood. This indicates Agar-Wit may have commercial potential. Induction of cultivated agarwood using this method could satisfy the significant demand for agarwood, while conserving and protecting the remaining wild Aquilaria trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessArticle Volatile Compounds in Dry Dog Foods and Their Influence on Sensory Aromatic Profile
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 2646-2662; doi:10.3390/molecules18032646
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 21 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 27 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their possible influence on sensory aromatic profile. Grain-free dry dog foods were compared to dry dog foods manufactured with grain, but also with different protein sources for [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their possible influence on sensory aromatic profile. Grain-free dry dog foods were compared to dry dog foods manufactured with grain, but also with different protein sources for their aromatic volatiles. Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the aromatic compounds present in the headspace of these samples. Partial Least Squares regression was performed to correlate the instrumental aromatic data with the descriptive aroma analysis data. A total of 54 aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in the dry dog food samples, with aldehydes and ketones being the most represented organic volatiles group. Grain-added products were on the average higher in total volatiles than grain-free products. Partial Least Squares regression analysis indicated possible connections with sensory aromatic profile and grain-added samples, such as rancid aroma and aldehydes, especially hexanal. The results of this study showed that dry dog foods are products with complex odor characteristics and that grain-free products are less aromatic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessArticle Production of Volatile Compounds in Reconstituted Milk Reduced-Fat Cheese and the Physicochemical Properties as Affected by Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain
Molecules 2012, 17(12), 14393-14408; doi:10.3390/molecules171214393
Received: 25 October 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 5 December 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (821 KB)
Abstract
The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP). The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses [...] Read more.
The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP). The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses showed that this strain slightly increased moisture content resulting in cheese with higher yield and lower protein content compared to the direct acidified cheese. The volatiles of cheese were determined by SPME and GC equipped with a mass spectrometer. The results indicated that the major compounds included aldehydes, ketones and acids, whereas, alcohols and branched-chain aldehydes that contribute to exciting and harsh flavors were not found in CRMP. By the textural profile analysis, we found the cheese made with S. thermophilus TM11 had lower cohesiveness, resilience and higher adhesiveness than the direct acidified cheese, and had similar hardness. Further, S. thermophilus TM11 greatly changed the protein matrix with more opened cavities according to observation by scanning electron microscopy. Consequently, use of S. thermophilus TM11 could endow CRMP with the novel and suitable flavor properties and improved texture quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Plasticity of the Human Olfactory System: The Olfactory Bulb
Molecules 2013, 18(9), 11586-11600; doi:10.3390/molecules180911586
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, particularly to its abilities of plasticity and its potential continuous neurogenesis throughout adult life. Although mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis have been largely investigated in animals, to some degree [...] Read more.
In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, particularly to its abilities of plasticity and its potential continuous neurogenesis throughout adult life. Although mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis have been largely investigated in animals, to some degree they remain unclear in humans. Based on human research findings, the present review will focus on the olfactory bulb as an evidence of the astonishing plasticity of the human olfactory system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessReview Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8200-8229; doi:10.3390/molecules18078200
Received: 17 May 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, [...] Read more.
Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessReview Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plant Flavors and Fragrances
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7194-7238; doi:10.3390/molecules18067194
Received: 15 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO2, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of [...] Read more.
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO2, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessReview Natural 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol®)
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 6936-6951; doi:10.3390/molecules18066936
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 6 June 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF, furaneol®) and its methyl ether 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) are import aroma chemicals and are considered key flavor compounds in many fruit. Due to their attractive sensory properties they are highly appreciated by the food industry. [...] Read more.
4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF, furaneol®) and its methyl ether 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) are import aroma chemicals and are considered key flavor compounds in many fruit. Due to their attractive sensory properties they are highly appreciated by the food industry. In fruits 2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanones are synthesized by a series of enzymatic steps whereas HDMF is also a product of the Maillard reaction. Numerous methods for the synthetic preparation of these compounds have been published and are applied by industry, but for the development of a biotechnological process the knowledge and availability of biosynthetic enzymes are required. During the last years substantial progress has been made in the elucidation of the biological pathway leading to HDMF and DMMF. This review summarizes the latest advances in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessReview The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 6748-6781; doi:10.3390/molecules18066748
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 26 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant [...] Read more.
This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessReview Camphor—A Fumigant during the Black Death and a Coveted Fragrant Wood in Ancient Egypt and Babylon—A Review
Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5434-5454; doi:10.3390/molecules18055434
Received: 15 March 2013 / Revised: 21 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fragrant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) and its products, such as camphor oil, have been coveted since ancient times. Having a rich history of traditional use, it was particularly used as a fumigant during the era of the Black Death [...] Read more.
The fragrant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) and its products, such as camphor oil, have been coveted since ancient times. Having a rich history of traditional use, it was particularly used as a fumigant during the era of the Black Death and considered as a valuable ingredient in both perfume and embalming fluid. Camphor has been widely used as a fragrance in cosmetics, as a food flavourant, as a common ingredient in household cleaners, as well as in topically applied analgesics and rubefacients for the treatment of minor muscle aches and pains. Camphor, traditionally obtained through the distillation of the wood of the camphor tree, is a major essential oil component of many aromatic plant species, as it is biosynthetically synthesised; it can also be chemically synthesised using mainly turpentine as a starting material. Camphor exhibits a number of biological properties such as insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticoccidial, anti-nociceptive, anticancer and antitussive activities, in addition to its use as a skin penetration enhancer. However, camphor is a very toxic substance and numerous cases of camphor poisoning have been documented. This review briefly summarises the uses and synthesis of camphor and discusses the biological properties and toxicity of this valuable molecule. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessReview Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor
Molecules 2013, 18(5), 4887-4905; doi:10.3390/molecules18054887
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from [...] Read more.
Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
Open AccessReview Relationship between Mood Change, Odour and Its Physiological Effects in Humans While Inhaling the Fragrances of Essential Oils as well as Linalool and Its Enantiomers
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3312-3338; doi:10.3390/molecules18033312
Received: 25 January 2013 / Revised: 6 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Humans can detect and discriminate a vast number of odours. The number perceived as distinguishable is estimated to be more than ten thousand. Humans are capable of distinguishing even slight alterations in the structure of an odorous molecule. A pair of enantiomers [...] Read more.
Humans can detect and discriminate a vast number of odours. The number perceived as distinguishable is estimated to be more than ten thousand. Humans are capable of distinguishing even slight alterations in the structure of an odorous molecule. A pair of enantiomers of an odorant, which possess the same molecular structures except for the chiral position, can trigger profoundly different odour perceptions. How precisely can humans and their olfactory system detect and discriminate such a great variety of odours and such subtle differences in the molecular structures? In a series of studies, we have attempted to examine the relationship between mood change, odour and its physiological effects, by focusing on the possible verbal and non-verbal changes in humans induced by smelling the fragrances of essential oils as well as linalool and its enantiometric isomers. In this article, we provide an overview of our recent verbal and non-verbal studies. We then discuss how our findings may contribute to the assessment of psychophysiological responses of essential oils as well as how our research can contribute to the study of human chemoreception science, by shedding light on the sophistication of the olfactory system in its ability to detect and discriminate odors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)

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