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Special Issue "Heterogeneous Catalysis"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Eric Guibal

Ecole des mines d'Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d'Alès (C2MA), 6, avenue de Clavières, 30319 Alès cedex, France
E-Mail
Phone: +33 (0)466782734
Interests: biopolymers; wastewater treatment; metal ion interactions with biopolymers; biopolymer conditioning; supported catalysis; encapsulation processes; ionic liquids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heterogeneous catalysis is key step in the synthesis pathway of a number of products in fields as diverse as petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals but also in environmental applications;. The specific properties brought to the reaction by the supports open the route to enhanced efficiency, selectivity in synthesis, and improved competitiveness. This special issue of molecules dedicated to Heterogeneous Catalysis calls for both fundamental and applied contributions in this field of growing academic and industrial interests. Special attention will be paid to the characterization of materials (surface properties, diffusion characteristics), the identification of mechanisms and limiting steps, and the contribution of support properties to the orientation/selectivity of catalytic reactions. A special attention will be paid to original supports (based on renewable resources).

Dr. Eric Guibal
Guest Editor

Submission

All manuscripts should be submitted to molecules@mdpi.com with a copy to the Guest Editor. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers).All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this Open Access journal is 1800 CHF per accepted paper.

Keywords

  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • support characterization
  • surface properties
  • porosity
  • kinetics
  • governing rate
  • selectivity
  • reaction pathways
  • modeling
  • alternative supports

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessCommunication Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 7675-7685; doi:10.3390/molecules18077675
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
5-Halomethylfurfurals can be considered as platform chemicals of high reactivity making them useful for the preparation of a variety of important compounds. In this study, a one-pot route for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF) in a simple and efficient (HCl-H3
[...] Read more.
5-Halomethylfurfurals can be considered as platform chemicals of high reactivity making them useful for the preparation of a variety of important compounds. In this study, a one-pot route for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF) in a simple and efficient (HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3) biphasic system has been investigated. Monosaccharides such as D-fructose, D-glucose and sorbose, disaccharides such as sucrose and cellobiose and polysaccharides such as cellulose were successfully converted into CMF in satisfactory yields under mild conditions. Our data shows that when using D-fructose the optimum yield of CMF was about 47%. This understanding allowed us to extent our work to biomaterials, such as wood powder and wood pulps with yields of CMF obtained being comparable to those seen with some of the enumerated mono and disaccharides. Overall, the proposed (HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3) optimized biphasic system provides a simple, mild, and cost-effective means to prepare CMF from renewable resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle Enantioselectivity Induced by Oxazaborolidine Supported on Mesoporous Silica or by Its Analog in Homogeneous Phase
Molecules 2010, 15(5), 3643-3660; doi:10.3390/molecules15053643
Received: 19 April 2010 / Revised: 6 May 2010 / Accepted: 12 May 2010 / Published: 18 May 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (720 KB)
Abstract
The impact of immobilization of oxazaborolidines supported on silica via different substituents on the boron and nitrogen atoms is evaluated in the enantioselective reduction of acetophenone. The performances of the homogeneous analog oxazaborolidines and silica supported-ones are compared by varying different parameters. This
[...] Read more.
The impact of immobilization of oxazaborolidines supported on silica via different substituents on the boron and nitrogen atoms is evaluated in the enantioselective reduction of acetophenone. The performances of the homogeneous analog oxazaborolidines and silica supported-ones are compared by varying different parameters. This article deals with the synthesis, characterization and catalytic evaluation of silica-supported oxazaborolidines, their recycling capabilities and regeneration limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle Chiral Pt/ZrO2 Catalysts. Enantioselective Hydrogenation of 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione
Molecules 2010, 15(5), 3428-3440; doi:10.3390/molecules15053428
Received: 13 February 2010 / Revised: 15 April 2010 / Accepted: 10 May 2010 / Published: 12 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (453 KB)
Abstract
The enantioselective hydrogenation of 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedioneover Pt colloids stabilized with (R,S)-4,5-dihydro-4,5-diphenyl-2-(6-cyanopyridinyl)imidazoline (CI) supported on a meso-structured ZrO2 under a pressure of 40 bar of H2 at 298 K has been investigated. The metal loading in all catalysts was 1
[...] Read more.
The enantioselective hydrogenation of 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedioneover Pt colloids stabilized with (R,S)-4,5-dihydro-4,5-diphenyl-2-(6-cyanopyridinyl)imidazoline (CI) supported on a meso-structured ZrO2 under a pressure of 40 bar of H2 at 298 K has been investigated. The metal loading in all catalysts was 1 wt%. The effect of the amount of chiral modifier on the metal particle size and on the catalytic behavior was analyzed. It was found that as the CI/Pt molar ratio increases from 2.5 to 3.5 the Pt crystal size decreases from 3.0 to 1.8 nm. All catalysts were very active in the studied reaction, with the most active one being the catalyst with smaller Pt particles, whereas the selectivity is higher in those catalysts with larger chiral modified Pt metal particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle Photocatalytic Degradation of Mecoprop and Clopyralid in Aqueous Suspensions of Nanostructured N-doped TiO2
Molecules 2010, 15(5), 2994-3009; doi:10.3390/molecules15052994
Received: 22 January 2010 / Revised: 18 March 2010 / Accepted: 20 April 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (536 KB)
Abstract
The work describes a study of the oxidation power of N-doped and undoped anatase TiO2, as well as TiO2 Degussa P25 suspensions for photocatalytic degradation of the herbicides RS-2-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy)propionic acid (mecoprop) and 3,6-dichloro-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (clopyralid) using visible
[...] Read more.
The work describes a study of the oxidation power of N-doped and undoped anatase TiO2, as well as TiO2 Degussa P25 suspensions for photocatalytic degradation of the herbicides RS-2-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy)propionic acid (mecoprop) and 3,6-dichloro-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (clopyralid) using visible and UV light. Undoped nanostructured TiO2 powder in the form of anatase was prepared by a sol-gel route. The synthesized TiO2, as well as TiO2 Degussa P25 powder, were modified with urea to introduce nitrogen into the structure. N-doped TiO2 appeared to be somewhat more efficient than the starting TiO2 (anatase) powder when visible light was used for mecoprop degradation. N-doped TiO2 Degussa P25 was also slightly more efficient than TiO2 Degussa P25. However, under the same experimental conditions, no degradation of clopyralid was observed in the presence of any of the mentioned catalysts. When the kinetics of mecoprop degradation was studied using UV light, more efficient were the undoped powders, while in the case of clopyralid, N-doped TiO2 Degussa P25 powder was most efficient, which is probably a consequence of the difference in the molecular structure of the two herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Chemical Reactions Catalyzed by Metalloporphyrin-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks
Molecules 2013, 18(6), 7279-7308; doi:10.3390/molecules18067279
Received: 7 May 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthetic versatility and the potential application of metalloporphyrins (MP) in different fields have aroused researchers’ interest in studying these complexes, in an attempt to mimic biological systems such as cytochrome P-450. Over the last 40 years, synthetic MPs have been mainly used
[...] Read more.
The synthetic versatility and the potential application of metalloporphyrins (MP) in different fields have aroused researchers’ interest in studying these complexes, in an attempt to mimic biological systems such as cytochrome P-450. Over the last 40 years, synthetic MPs have been mainly used as catalysts for homogeneous or heterogeneous chemical reactions. To employ them in heterogeneous catalysis, chemists have prepared new MP-based solids by immobilizing MP onto rigid inorganic supports, a strategy that affords hybrid inorganic-organic materials. More recently, materials obtained by supramolecular assembly processes and containing MPs as building blocks have been applied in a variety of areas, like gas storage, photonic devices, separation, molecular sensing, magnets, and heterogeneous catalysis, among others. These coordination polymers, known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), contain organic ligands or complexes connected by metal ions or clusters, which give rise to a 1-, 2- or 3-D network. These kinds of materials presents large surface areas, Brønsted or redox sites, and high porosity, all of which are desirable features in catalysts with potential use in heterogeneous phases. Building MOFs based on MP is a good way to obtain solid catalysts that offer the advantages of bioinspired systems and zeolitic materials. In this mini review, we will adopt a historical approach to present the most relevant MP-based MOFs applicable to catalytic reactions such as oxidation, reduction, insertion of functional groups, and exchange of organic functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)
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Open AccessReview Combining the Benefits of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis with Tunable Solvents and Nearcritical Water
Molecules 2010, 15(11), 8400-8424; doi:10.3390/molecules15118400
Received: 11 October 2010 / Accepted: 8 November 2010 / Published: 16 November 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (456 KB)
Abstract
The greatest advantage of heterogeneous catalysis is the ease of separation, while the disadvantages are often limited activity and selectivity.  We report solvents that use tunable phase behavior to achieve homogeneous catalysis with ease of separation.  Tunable solvents are homogeneous mixtures of water
[...] Read more.
The greatest advantage of heterogeneous catalysis is the ease of separation, while the disadvantages are often limited activity and selectivity.  We report solvents that use tunable phase behavior to achieve homogeneous catalysis with ease of separation.  Tunable solvents are homogeneous mixtures of water or polyethylene glycol with organics such as acetonitrile, dioxane, and THF that can be used for homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Modest pressures of a soluble gas, generally CO2, achieve facile post-reaction heterogeneous separation of products from the catalyst. Examples shown here are rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of 1-octene and p-methylstyrene and palladium catalyzed C-O coupling to produce o-tolyl-3,5-xylyl ether and 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol. Both were successfully carried out in homogeneous tunable solvents followed by separation efficiencies of up to 99% with CO2 pressures of 3 MPa. Further examples in tunable solvents are enzyme catalyzed reactions such as kinetic resolution of rac-1-phenylethyl acetate and hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl acetate (2PEA) to 2-phenylethanol (2PE). Another tunable solvent is nearcritical water (NCW), whose unique properties offer advantages for developing sustainable alternatives to traditional processes. Some examples discussed are Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, hydrolysis of benzoate esters, and water-catalyzed deprotection of N-Boc-protected amine compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)
Open AccessReview Microheterogeneous Catalysis
Molecules 2010, 15(7), 4815-4874; doi:10.3390/molecules15074815
Received: 1 June 2010 / Revised: 23 June 2010 / Accepted: 5 July 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (481 KB)
Abstract
The catalytic effect of micelles, polymers (such as DNA, polypeptides) and nanoparticles, saturable receptors (cyclodextrins and calixarenes) and more complex systems (mixing some of the above mentioned catalysts) have been reviewed. In these microheterogeneous systems the observed changes in the rate constants have
[...] Read more.
The catalytic effect of micelles, polymers (such as DNA, polypeptides) and nanoparticles, saturable receptors (cyclodextrins and calixarenes) and more complex systems (mixing some of the above mentioned catalysts) have been reviewed. In these microheterogeneous systems the observed changes in the rate constants have been rationalized using the Pseudophase Model. This model produces equations that can be derived from the Brönsted equation, which is the basis for a more general formulation of catalytic effects, including electrocatalysis. When, in the catalyzed reaction one of the reactants is in the excited state, the applicability (at least formally) of the Pseudophase Model occurs only in two limiting situations: the lifetime of the fluorophore and the distributions of the quencher and the probe are the main properties that define the different situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)
Open AccessReview Design and Use of Nanostructured Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Selective Transformation of Fine Chemicals
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 3829-3856; doi:10.3390/molecules15063829
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (490 KB)
Abstract
Nanostructured single-site heterogeneous catalysts possess the advantages of classical solid catalysts, in terms of easy recovery and recycling, together with a defined tailored chemical and steric environment around the catalytically active metal site. The use of inorganic oxide supports with selected shape and
[...] Read more.
Nanostructured single-site heterogeneous catalysts possess the advantages of classical solid catalysts, in terms of easy recovery and recycling, together with a defined tailored chemical and steric environment around the catalytically active metal site. The use of inorganic oxide supports with selected shape and porosity at a nanometric level may have a relevant impact on the regio- and stereochemistry of the catalytic reaction. Analogously, by choosing the optimal preparation techniques to obtain spatially isolated and well-characterised active sites, it is possible to achieve performances that are comparable to (or, in the most favourable cases, better than) those obtained with homogeneous systems. Such catalysts are therefore particularly suitable for the transformation of highly-functionalised fine chemicals and some relevant examples where high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity are crucial will be described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

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