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Molecules, Volume 18, Issue 7 (July 2013), Pages 7336-8711

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Open AccessArticle Diorganotin(IV) Derivatives of N-Methyl p-Fluorobenzo-Hydroxamic Acid: Preparation, Spectral Characterization, X-ray Diffraction Studies and Antitumor Activity
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8696-8711; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078696
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three diorganotin(IV) complexes of the general formula R2Sn[RcC(O)N(RN)O] (Rc = aryl, RN = Alkyl) have been synthesized by refluxing in toluene the corresponding diorganotin(IV) oxides with the free ligand N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid,
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Three diorganotin(IV) complexes of the general formula R2Sn[RcC(O)N(RN)O] (Rc = aryl, RN = Alkyl) have been synthesized by refluxing in toluene the corresponding diorganotin(IV) oxides with the free ligand N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid, using a Dean and Stark water separator. The ligand was derived from the reaction of the corresponding p-fluorobenzoyl chloride and N-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The isolated free ligand and its respective diorganotin compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H-, 13C-, 119Sn-NMR spectroscopies. The crystal structures of the diorganotin complexes have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The investigations carried out on the diorganotin(IV) complexes of N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid confirmed a 1:2 stoichiometry. The complex formation took place through the O,O-coordination via the carbonyl oxygen and subsequent deprotonated hydroxyl group to the tin atom. The crystal structures of three diorganotin complexes were determined and were found to adopt six coordination geometries at the tin centre with coordination to two ligand moieties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle MYB Transcription Factors Regulate Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Different Organs of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8682-8695; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078682
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the expression of seven MYB transcription factors (a total of 17 genes that included Dof1.1, IQD1-1, MYB28, MYB29, MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 and their isoforms) involved in aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate (GSL) biosynthesis and analyzed the aliphatic and
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In this study, we investigated the expression of seven MYB transcription factors (a total of 17 genes that included Dof1.1, IQD1-1, MYB28, MYB29, MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 and their isoforms) involved in aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate (GSL) biosynthesis and analyzed the aliphatic and indolic GSL content in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapassp. Pekinensis). MYB28 and MYB29 expression in the stem was dramatically different when compared with the levels in the other organs. MYB34, MYB122, MYB51, Dof1.1, and IQD1-1 showed very low transcript levels among different organs. HPLC analysis showed that the glucosinolates (GSLs) consisted of five aliphatic GSLs (progoitrin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, and glucobrassicanapin) and four indolic GSLs (4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxygluco-brassicin, and neoglucobrassicin). Aliphatic GSLs exhibited 63.3% of the total GSLs content, followed by aromatic GSL (19.0%), indolic GSLs (10%), and unknown GSLs (7.7%) in different organs of Chinese cabbage. The total GSL content of different parts (ranked in descending order) was as follows: seed > flower > young leaves > stem > root > old leaves. The relationship between GSLs accumulation and expression of GSLs biosynthesis MYB TFs genes in different organs may be helpful to understand the mechanism of MYB TFs regulating GSL biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Burr Parsley (Caucalis platycarpos L.)
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8666-8681; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078666
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 17 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since C. platycarpos contains a wide variety of antioxidants, in the present study total flavonoid and phenolic acid content as well as antioxidative activity of various C. platycarpos extracts were investigated. The results obtained show a significant polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of
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Since C. platycarpos contains a wide variety of antioxidants, in the present study total flavonoid and phenolic acid content as well as antioxidative activity of various C. platycarpos extracts were investigated. The results obtained show a significant polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of the investigated plant. Moreover, a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was found, indicating the responsibility of these compounds for the antioxidant effectiveness of C. platycarpos extracts and making C. platycarpos a good potential source of natural antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Recent Trends in Bioorthogonal Click-Radiolabeling Reactions Using Fluorine-18
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8618-8665; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078618
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing application of positron emission tomography (PET) in nuclear medicine has stimulated the extensive development of a multitude of novel and versatile bioorthogonal conjugation techniques especially for the radiolabeling of biologically active high molecular weight compounds like peptides, proteins or antibodies. Taking
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The increasing application of positron emission tomography (PET) in nuclear medicine has stimulated the extensive development of a multitude of novel and versatile bioorthogonal conjugation techniques especially for the radiolabeling of biologically active high molecular weight compounds like peptides, proteins or antibodies. Taking into consideration that the introduction of fluorine-18 (t1/2 = 109.8 min) proceeds under harsh conditions, radiolabeling of these biologically active molecules represents an outstanding challenge and is of enormous interest. Special attention has to be paid to the method of 18F-introduction. It should proceed in a regioselective manner under mild physiological conditions, in an acceptable time span, with high yields and high specific activities. For these reasons and due to the high number of functional groups found in these compounds, a specific labeling procedure has to be developed for every bioactive macromolecule. Bioorthogonal strategies including the Cu-assisted Huisgen cycloaddition and its copper-free click variant, both Staudinger Ligations or the tetrazine-click reaction have been successfully applied and represent valuable alternatives for the selective introduction of fluorine-18 to overcome the afore mentioned obstacles. This comprehensive review deals with the progress and illustrates the latest developments in the field of bioorthogonal labeling with the focus on the preparation of radiofluorinated building blocks and tracers for molecular imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Click Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of PAMAM Dendrimers on the Antibacterial Activity of Antibiotics with Different Water Solubility
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8607-8617; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078607
Received: 20 June 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Erythromycin (EM) and tobramycin (TOB) are well-known and widely used antibiotics, belonging to different therapeutic groups: macrolide and aminoglycoside, respectively. Moreover, they possess different solubility: EM is slightly soluble and TOB is freely soluble in water. It was previously demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimers
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Erythromycin (EM) and tobramycin (TOB) are well-known and widely used antibiotics, belonging to different therapeutic groups: macrolide and aminoglycoside, respectively. Moreover, they possess different solubility: EM is slightly soluble and TOB is freely soluble in water. It was previously demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimers enhanced the pharmacological activity of antifungal drugs by increasing their solubility. Therefore, it appears interesting to investigate the effect of PAMAM-NH2 and PAMAM-OH dendrimers generation 2 (G2) and generation 3 (G3) on the antibacterial activity of antibiotics with different water solubility. In this study it was shown that the aqueous solubility of EM was significantly increased by PAMAM dendrimers (PAMAM-NH2 and PAMAM-OH caused about 8- and 7- fold solubility increases, respectively). However, it was indicated that despite the increase in the solubility, there was only slight influence on the antibacterial activity of EM (2- and 4- fold decreases in the MBC values of EM in the presence of PAMAM-OH G3 and PAMAM-NH2 G2 or G3 for strains of Staphylococcus aureus were noted, respectively). It was also found that there was no influence of PAMAM on the antibacterial activity of hydrophilic TOB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers in Medicine and Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Searching for Stable SinCn Clusters: Combination of Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Car-Parinello Simulated Annealing Simulations
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8591-8606; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078591
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To find low energy SinCn structures out of hundreds to thousands of isomers we have developed a general method to search for stable isomeric structures that combines Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Car-Parinello Molecular Dynamics
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To find low energy SinCn structures out of hundreds to thousands of isomers we have developed a general method to search for stable isomeric structures that combines Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Car-Parinello Molecular Dynamics simulated annealing (PSPW-CPMD-SA). We enhanced the Sunders stochastic search method to generate random cluster structures used as seed structures for PSPW-CPMD-SA simulations. This method ensures that each SA simulation samples a different potential surface region to find the regional minimum structure. By iterations of this automated, parallel process on a high performance computer we located hundreds to more than a thousand stable isomers for each SinCn cluster. Among these, five to 10 of the lowest energy isomers were further optimized using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. We applied this method to SinCn (n = 4–12) clusters and found the lowest energy structures, most not previously reported. By analyzing the bonding patterns of low energy structures of each SinCn cluster, we observed that carbon segregations tend to form condensed conjugated rings while Si connects to unsaturated bonds at the periphery of the carbon segregation as single atoms or clusters when n is small and when n is large a silicon network spans over the carbon segregation region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure of the C-terminal Region of the Frizzled Receptor 1 in Detergent Micelles
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8579-8590; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078579
Received: 24 June 2013 / Revised: 18 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The C-terminal domains of the Frizzleds (FZDs) contain a short conserved motif (KTXXXW). It has been demonstrated that FZDs interacted with the PDZ domain of the cytoplasmic proteins such as Dishevelled through this motif and mutations in this motif disrupted Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We
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The C-terminal domains of the Frizzleds (FZDs) contain a short conserved motif (KTXXXW). It has been demonstrated that FZDs interacted with the PDZ domain of the cytoplasmic proteins such as Dishevelled through this motif and mutations in this motif disrupted Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We carried out structural studies for a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of the FZD1 in different solvents using circular dichroism and solution NMR spectroscopy. Our results showed that this domain was unstructured in an aqueous solution and formed a helical structure in detergent micelles. Fluorescence studies suggested that the tryptophan residue (W630) in the motif interacted with micelles. The solution structure of the peptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles was determined and an amphipathic helix was identified. This helix may have similar function to the helix 8 of other G protein-coupled receptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR of Proteins and Small Biomolecules)
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Open AccessArticle Elaboration of Stable and Antibody Functionalized Positively Charged Colloids by Polyelectrolyte Complexation between Chitosan and Hyaluronic Acid
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8563-8578; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078563
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we describe the elaboration of multifunctional positively charged polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles, designed to be stable at physiological salt concentration and pH, for effective targeted delivery. These nanoparticles were obtained by charge neutralization between chitosan (CS) as polycation and hyaluronic
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In this study, we describe the elaboration of multifunctional positively charged polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles, designed to be stable at physiological salt concentration and pH, for effective targeted delivery. These nanoparticles were obtained by charge neutralization between chitosan (CS) as polycation and hyaluronic acid (HA) as polyanion. We showed that the course of the complexation process and the physico-chemical properties of the resulting colloids were impacted by (i) internal parameters such as the Degree of Acetylation (DA, i.e., the molar ration of acetyl glucosamine residues) and molar mass of CS, the HA molar mass and (ii) external parameters like the charge mixing ratio and the polymer concentrations. As a result, nonstoichiometric colloidal PECs were obtained in water or PBS (pH 7.4) and remained stable over one month. The polymer interactions were characterized by thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) and the morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. A model antibody, anti-ovalbumine (OVA) immunoglobulin A (IgA) was sorbed on the particle surface in water and PBS quantitatively in 4 h. The CS-HA/IgA nanoparticles average size was between 425–665 nm with a positive zeta potential. These results pointed out that CS-HA can be effective carriers for use in targeted drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins and Chitosans)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Bioassay of a New Class of Furanyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8550-8562; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078550
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 19 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test
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Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test the effect of newly prepared compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different substituted groups on tyrosinase enzyme activity, hoping to use them in the treatment of some diseases arising from tyrosinase activity disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a New Acyclic Pyrimidine Derivative as a Probe for Imaging Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase Gene Expression
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8535-8549; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078535
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
With the idea of finding a more selective radiotracer for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression by means of positron emission tomography (PET), a novel [18F]fluorine radiolabeled pyrimidine with 4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl side chain at N-1 (HHB-5-[
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With the idea of finding a more selective radiotracer for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression by means of positron emission tomography (PET), a novel [18F]fluorine radiolabeled pyrimidine with 4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl side chain at N-1 (HHB-5-[18F]FEP) was prepared and evaluated as a potential PET probe. Unlabeled reference compound, HHB-5-FEP, was synthesized via a five-step reaction sequence starting from 5-(2-acetoxyethyl)-4-methoxypyrimidin-2-one. The radiosynthesis of HHB-[18F]-FEP was accomplished by nucleophilic radiofluorination of a tosylate precursor using [18F]fluoride-cryptate complex in 45% ± 4 (n = 4) radiochemical yields and high purity (>99%). The biological evaluation indicated the feasibility of using HHB-5-[18F]FEP as a PET radiotracer for monitoring HSV1-tk expression in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Their Derivatives)
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Open AccessArticle A Straightforward Diphenylmethyl Protection Method and Deprotection of Some Pyrimidine Nucleosides
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8524-8534; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078524
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Benzhydryl protection of primary and secondary alcohols has been reported previously via reaction with metal alcoholates. Our aim was to find generally useful and very mild conditions for the alcoholic protection and deprotection of nucleosides with the diphenylmethyl group. This was accomplished for
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Benzhydryl protection of primary and secondary alcohols has been reported previously via reaction with metal alcoholates. Our aim was to find generally useful and very mild conditions for the alcoholic protection and deprotection of nucleosides with the diphenylmethyl group. This was accomplished for some pyrimidine nucleosides using PdCl2 as the transition metal catalyst, and with optimization yields of 70–90% have been achieved. A lack of solubility of other nucleosides hampers its more general use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Their Derivatives)
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Open AccessArticle Two New Chiratane-Type Triterpenoids from Swertia kouitchensis
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8518-8523; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078518
Received: 5 June 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two rare new chiratane-type triterpenoids, kouitchenoids A and B (1, 2), together with oleanolic acid (3) and ursolic acid (4), were isolated from ethanol extract of Swertia kouitchensis. The new structures were determined by the
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Two rare new chiratane-type triterpenoids, kouitchenoids A and B (1, 2), together with oleanolic acid (3) and ursolic acid (4), were isolated from ethanol extract of Swertia kouitchensis. The new structures were determined by the analysis of MS and NMR data. In addition, compounds 14 showed moderate inhibitory activity against the α-glucosidase (with IC50 values ranging from 1,812 to 2,027 μM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Decomposition Mechanisms and Kinetics of Novel Energetic Molecules BNFF-1 and ANFF-1: Quantum-Chemical Modeling
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8500-8517; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078500
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 13 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (9040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decomposition mechanisms, activation barriers, Arrhenius parameters, and reaction kinetics of the novel explosive compounds, 3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BNFF-1), and 3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (ANFF-1) were explored by means of density functional theory with a range of functionals combined with variational transition state theory. BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 were recently
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Decomposition mechanisms, activation barriers, Arrhenius parameters, and reaction kinetics of the novel explosive compounds, 3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BNFF-1), and 3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (ANFF-1) were explored by means of density functional theory with a range of functionals combined with variational transition state theory. BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 were recently suggested to be good candidates for insensitive high energy density materials. Our modeling reveals that the decomposition initiation in both BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 molecules is triggered by ring cleavage reactions while the further process is defined by a competition between two major pathways, the fast C-NO2 homolysis and slow nitro-nitrite isomerization releasing NO. We discuss insights on design of new energetic materials with targeted properties gained from our modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.)
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8485-8499; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078485
Received: 18 April 2013 / Revised: 19 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids,
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A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli) and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrophosphonylation of Nanoparticle Schiff Bases as a Mean for Preparation of Aminophosphonate-Functionalized Nanoparticles
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 8473-8484; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18078473
Received: 9 June 2013 / Revised: 9 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of nanotechnology is responsible for an increase in the achievements in medical diagnostics and in the preparation of new therapeutic vehicles. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles with a modified surface are a very attractive alternative to deliver therapeutic agents. We describe the
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The development of nanotechnology is responsible for an increase in the achievements in medical diagnostics and in the preparation of new therapeutic vehicles. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles with a modified surface are a very attractive alternative to deliver therapeutic agents. We describe the modification of the surface of the iron oxide nanoparticles with aminophosphonic acids by applying the classic hydrophosphonylation approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organophosphorus Chemistry)
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