Special Issue "Water Resources Vulnerability and Resilience in a Changing Climate"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ming Hsu Li
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Guest Editor
Institute of Hydrological & Oceanic Sciences, National Central University; Taoyuan 320, Taiwan.
Interests: land hydrological processes; watershed modeling; climate change and water resources
Prof. Dr. Ian Holman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: integrated land and water management; climate change impact assessment
Prof. Dr. Ching-pin Tung
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bio-Environmental Systems Engineering; National Taiwan University; Taipei 106, Taiwan
Interests: climate change; environmental systems analysis; sustainable soil and water resources

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Climate change has direct consequences on regional and seasonal variations in hydrological cycles, from changing the severity and frequency of floods to droughts, which intricately affect the availability and quality of fresh water and the ecosystems supported by them. Changes in socio-economic activities, land-use, and food production further aggravate difficulties in managing water resources in many regions. Numerous studies have been devoted to understanding impacts and providing adaptation strategies for different climate scenarios and projections for water related issues. However, the successful implementation of adaptation with water related polices is limited due to substantial uncertainties in both climate and socio-economic projections. Furthermore, the attributions of projected changes in hydrological variables are complicated because of modifications to fresh water flows arising from climate, water abstractions, and land-use changes. Issues of surface and groundwater vulnerability and resilience in a changing climate requires innovative advances in concepts, frameworks, models, and strategies that provide deliverable knowledge for actions.

This Special Issue welcomes research articles dedicated to providing holistic solutions with systemic pathways for reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience in all aspects of water resources against climate change. Contributions on impact assessments may include, but are not limited to, developing new frameworks or integrating and applying current models to quantify water vulnerability and resilience in changing climate.

Prof. Dr. Ming Hsu Li
Prof. Dr. Ian Holman
Prof. Dr. Ching-pin Tung
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • water resources
  • vulnerability
  • adaptation
  • resilience

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Assessing Future Rainfall Intensity–Duration–Frequency Characteristics across Taiwan Using the k-Nearest Neighbor Method
Water 2021, 13(11), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111521 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
This study analyzes the changes in rainfall intensities across Taiwan using the k-Nearest Neighbor method. Biases are corrected according to the identified discrepancy between the probability distribution of the model run and that of the observed data in the historical period. The [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the changes in rainfall intensities across Taiwan using the k-Nearest Neighbor method. Biases are corrected according to the identified discrepancy between the probability distribution of the model run and that of the observed data in the historical period. The projections of 21 weather stations in Taiwan under 10 (2RCP × 5GCM) scenarios for the near-(2021–2040) and far-future (2081–2100) are derived. The frequently occurred short-duration storm events in some regions decrease, but they are still vulnerable to flood considering the existing drainage capacities. More specifically, the land-subsidence region in the central, the landslide-sensitive mountainous region in the north and central, the pluvial- and fluvial-flood prone region in the north, and the eastern regions with vulnerable infrastructures should be especially aware of long-duration extreme events. Associations of the rainfall intensity with the different return period as well as the duration are further analyzed. The short-duration extreme events will become stronger, especially for 1-h events in the northern region and 1 or 2-h events in both the southern and eastern regions. In addition, places without experiences of long-lasting events may experience rainfall amounts exceeding 500 mm should be alert. Adaptation measures such as establishing distributed drainage system or renewing hydrological infrastructures in the eastern region are suggested considering the near future projection, and in the central and the southern regions for far future as well. Our findings can assist adaptation-related decision-making for more detailed stormwater/water resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Vulnerability and Resilience in a Changing Climate)
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Article
Converting Climate Change Gridded Daily Rainfall to Station Daily Rainfall—A Case Study at Zengwen Reservoir
Water 2021, 13(11), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111516 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
With improvements in data quality and technology, the statistical downscaling data of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for climate change impact assessment have been refined from monthly data to daily data, which has greatly promoted the data application level. However, there are differences between [...] Read more.
With improvements in data quality and technology, the statistical downscaling data of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for climate change impact assessment have been refined from monthly data to daily data, which has greatly promoted the data application level. However, there are differences between GCM downscaling daily data and rainfall station data. If GCM data are directly used for hydrology and water resources assessment, the differences in total amount and rainfall intensity will be revealed and may affect the estimates of the total amount of water resources and water supply capacity. This research proposes a two-stage bias correction method for GCM data and establishes a mechanism for converting grid data to station data. Five GCMs were selected from 33 GCMs, which were ranked by rainfall simulation performance from a baseline period in Taiwan. The watershed of the Zengwen Reservoir in southern Taiwan was selected as the study area for comparison of the three different bias correction methods. The results reveal that the method with the wet-day threshold optimized by objective function with observation rainfall wet days had the best result. Error was greatly reduced in the hydrology model simulation with two-stage bias correction. The results show that the two-stage bias correction method proposed in this study can be used as an advanced method of data pre-processing in climate change impact assessment, which could improve the quality and broaden the extent of GCM daily data. Additionally, GCM ranking can be used by researchers in climate change assessment to understand the suitability of each GCM in Taiwan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Vulnerability and Resilience in a Changing Climate)
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Article
Livelihood Vulnerability and Adaptation Capacity of Rice Farmers under Climate Change and Environmental Pressure on the Vietnam Mekong Delta Floodplains
Water 2020, 12(11), 3282; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113282 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Agricultural production is the primary source of income and food security for rural households in many deltas of the world. However, the sustainability of farm livelihoods is under threat, due to the impacts of climate change and environmental pressure, including shifting hydrological regimes, [...] Read more.
Agricultural production is the primary source of income and food security for rural households in many deltas of the world. However, the sustainability of farm livelihoods is under threat, due to the impacts of climate change and environmental pressure, including shifting hydrological regimes, droughts, water pollution, land subsidence and riverbank erosion. This study evaluated the livelihood sustainability and vulnerability of triple rice farmers on the floodplains of the Vietnam Mekong Delta (VMD). We focused on the perceptions of rice farmers, based on a survey of 300 farmers. Increasing temperatures, drought, water pollution and sediment shortages were the four factors considered by farmers to have the most impact on their agricultural livelihoods. We analyzed farmers’ capacity to sustain their livelihoods and adapt to the changing environment. Results show relatively low vulnerability of rice farmers overall, though many of those surveyed reported very low incomes from rice production. Factors of most concern to farmers were rising temperatures and more frequent droughts. Farmers were already taking steps to adapt, for example, increasing production inputs and investing more labor time, as well as switching production methods. Yet, our findings suggest that policymakers and scientists have a role to play in developing more sustainable adaptation paths. The research clarifies the livelihood vulnerability of triple rice farmers on the VMD floodplains, while more generally contributing to the body of literature on farming and climate change and environmental pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Vulnerability and Resilience in a Changing Climate)
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Article
A Generalized Framework for Assessing Flood Risk and Suitable Strategies under Various Vulnerability and Adaptation Scenarios: A Case Study for Residents of Kyoto City in Japan
Water 2020, 12(9), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092508 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
This study proposes a generalized framework for the assessment of flood risk and potential strategies to mitigate flood under various vulnerability and adaptation scenarios. The possible causes of hazard, exposure and vulnerability in flood disaster were clearly identified by using a climate risk [...] Read more.
This study proposes a generalized framework for the assessment of flood risk and potential strategies to mitigate flood under various vulnerability and adaptation scenarios. The possible causes of hazard, exposure and vulnerability in flood disaster were clearly identified by using a climate risk template. Then, levels of exposure and vulnerability with adaptive capacity and sensitivity were further defined by a quantification approach, and the climate risk maps were consequently provided. The potential possible climate adaptation strategies were investigated through the comparison of climate risk maps with diverse adaptation options. The framework was demonstrated in the Kyoto City in Japan with residents as a target population to reduce the flood risk. The results indicate that the government should pay attention to reducing the population in flood-prone areas and adopt diverse adaptation strategies to reduce the flood risk to the residents. Rainwater storage and green roofs as adaptation strategies as short-term planning options are recommended. The construction of detention ponds has been suggested to prevent flood risks in future as a part of the long-term planning process. In conclusion, the proposed framework is expected to be a suitable tool for supporting climate risk analysis in the context of flood disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Vulnerability and Resilience in a Changing Climate)
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