Special Issue "Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mojca Šraj
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: watershed hydrology; hydrological modeling; hydrological extreme analysis; floods; flood frequency analysis; nonstationarity of hydrological extremes; copula function; rainfall interception; evapotranspiration; climate change impact

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydrological modeling is an essential part of water resources management, planning, and design of water structures. Despite of its importance, it is a challenging issue, especially in non-homogeneous catchments (e.g., in terms of geology, karst features or any other watershed characteristic) with a complex hydrological behavior and response. Various methods of different complexity can be used for hydrological modeling, from relatively simple empirical and lumped models to physically-based conceptual and distributed models as well as data-driven models. However, there should always be a balance between model complexity and data availability.

This Special Issue calls for research manuscripts focusing on hydrological modeling or other techniques addressing hydrological response of runoff to a given precipitation in non-homogeneous catchments, comparison of the efficiency of different model structures, data resolutions, scales, etc., with the aim of reducing the uncertainty of the results (low and/or high flows) and improving water resources management in non-homogeneous catchments. Contributions may address any type of non-homogeniety of the catchments.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mojca Šraj
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hydrological modeling
  • hydrological analysis
  • non­homogeneous catchments
  • floods
  • low flows
  • uncertainty
  • model efficiency

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Hillslope Contribution to the Clark Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph: Application to the Seolmacheon Basin, Korea
Water 2021, 13(12), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121707 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 214
Abstract
In this study, the time–area curve of an ellipse is analytically derived by considering flow velocities within both channel and hillslope. The Clark IUH is also derived analytically by solving the continuity equation with the input of the derived time–area curve to the [...] Read more.
In this study, the time–area curve of an ellipse is analytically derived by considering flow velocities within both channel and hillslope. The Clark IUH is also derived analytically by solving the continuity equation with the input of the derived time–area curve to the linear reservoir. The derived Clark IUH is then evaluated by application to the Seolmacheon basin, a small mountainous basin in Korea. The findings in this study are summarized as follows. (1) The time–area curve of a basin can more realistically be derived by considering both the channel and hillslope velocities. The role of the hillslope velocity can also be easily confirmed by analyzing the derived time–area curve. (2) The analytically derived Clark IUH shows the relative roles of the hillslope velocity and the storage coefficient. Under the condition that the channel velocity remains unchanged, the hillslope velocity controls the runoff peak flow and the concentration time. On the other hand, the effect of the storage coefficient can be found in the runoff peak flow and peak time, as well as in the falling limb of the runoff hydrograph. These findings are also confirmed in the analysis of rainfall–runoff events of the Seolmacheon basin. (3) The effect of the hillslope velocity varies considerably depending on the rainfall events, which is also found to be mostly dependent upon the maximum rainfall intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
Distributed-Framework Basin Modeling System: II. Hydrologic Modeling System
Water 2021, 13(5), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050744 - 09 Mar 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
A distributed-framework hydrologic modeling system (DF-HMS) is a primary and significant component of a distributed-framework basin modeling system (DFBMS), which simulates the hydrological processes and responses after rainfall at the basin scale, especially for non-homogenous basins. The DFBMS consists of 11 hydrological feature [...] Read more.
A distributed-framework hydrologic modeling system (DF-HMS) is a primary and significant component of a distributed-framework basin modeling system (DFBMS), which simulates the hydrological processes and responses after rainfall at the basin scale, especially for non-homogenous basins. The DFBMS consists of 11 hydrological feature units (HFUs) involving vertical and horizontal geographic areas in a basin. Appropriate hydrologic or hydraulic methods are adopted for different HFUs to simulate corresponding hydrological processes. The digital basin generation model is first developed to determine the essential information for hydrologic and hydraulic simulation. This paper mainly describes two significant HFUs contained in the DF-HMS for hydrologic modeling: Hilly sub-watershed and plain overland flow HFUs. A typical hilly area application case study in the Three Gorges area is introduced, which demonstrates DF-HMS’s good performance in comparison with the observed streamflow at catchment outlets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
Distributed-Framework Basin Modeling System: I. Overview and Model Coupling
Water 2021, 13(5), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050678 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 436
Abstract
To better simulate the river basin hydrological cycle and to solve practical engineering application issues, this paper describes the distributed-framework basin modeling system (DFBMS), which concatenate a professional hydrological model system, a geographical integrated system, and a database management system. DFBMS has two [...] Read more.
To better simulate the river basin hydrological cycle and to solve practical engineering application issues, this paper describes the distributed-framework basin modeling system (DFBMS), which concatenate a professional hydrological model system, a geographical integrated system, and a database management system. DFBMS has two cores, which are the distributed-frame professional modeling system (DF-PMS) and the double-object sharing structure (DOSS). An area/region that has the same mechanism of runoff generation and/or movement is defined as one type of hydrological feature unit (HFU). DF-PMS adopts different kinds of HFUs to simulate the whole watershed hydrological cycle. The HFUs concept is the most important component of DF-PMS, enabling the model to simulate the hydrological process with empirical equations or physical-based submodules. Based on the underlying source code, the sharing uniform data structure, named DOSS, is proposed to accomplish the integration of a hydrological model and geographical information system (GIS), which is a new way of exploring temporal GIS. DFBMS has different numerical schemes including conceptual and distributed models. The feasibility and practicability of DFBMS are proven through its application in different study areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
Distributed-Framework Basin Modeling System: Ⅲ. Hydraulic Modeling System
Water 2021, 13(5), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050649 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 424
Abstract
A distributed-framework basin modeling system (DFBMS) was developed to simulate the runoff generation and movement on a basin scale. This study is part of a series of papers on DFBMS that focuses on the hydraulic calculation methods in runoff concentration on underlying surfaces [...] Read more.
A distributed-framework basin modeling system (DFBMS) was developed to simulate the runoff generation and movement on a basin scale. This study is part of a series of papers on DFBMS that focuses on the hydraulic calculation methods in runoff concentration on underlying surfaces and flow movement in river networks and lakes. This paper introduces the distributed-framework river modeling system (DF-RMS) that is a professional modeling system for hydraulic modeling. The DF-RMS contains different hydrological feature units (HFUs) to simulate the runoff movement through a system of rivers, storage units, lakes, and hydraulic structures. The river network simulations were categorized into different types, including one-dimensional river branch, dendritic river network, loop river network, and intersecting river network. The DF-RMS was applied to the middle and downstream portions of the Huai River Plain in China using different HFUs for river networks and lakes. The simulation results showed great consistency with the observed data, which proves that DF-RMS is a reliable system to simulate the flow movement in river networks and lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
Distributed-Framework Basin Modeling System: IV. Application in Taihu Basin
Water 2021, 13(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050611 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 438
Abstract
This paper presents the application of a distributed-framework basin modeling system (DFBMS) in Taihu Basin, China. The concepts of professional modeling systems and system integration/coupling have been summarized in the first three series papers. This study builds a hydrologic and hydrodynamic model for [...] Read more.
This paper presents the application of a distributed-framework basin modeling system (DFBMS) in Taihu Basin, China. The concepts of professional modeling systems and system integration/coupling have been summarized in the first three series papers. This study builds a hydrologic and hydrodynamic model for Taihu Basin, which is in the lowland plain areas with numerous polder areas. Digital underlying surface area data agree with the survey results from the water resource development and utilization. The runoff generated in each cell was calculated with the model based on the digital underlying surface data. According to the hydrological feature units (HFU) concept from the DFBMS, Taihu Basin was conceptualized into six different HFUs. The basic data of rainfall, evaporation, water surface elevation (WSE), discharge, tide level, and water resources for consumption and discharge in 2000 were used to calibrate the model. The simulated results of WSE and discharge matched the observed data well. The observed data of 1998, 1999, 2002, and 2003 were used to validate the model, with good agreement with the simulation results. Finally, the basic data from 2003 were used to simulate and evaluate the management scheme of water diversion from the Yangtze River to Taihu Lake. Overall, the DFBMS application in Taihu Basin showed good performance and proved that the proposed structure for DFBMS was effective and reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
A Comparative Assessment of Hydrological Models in the Upper Cauvery Catchment
Water 2021, 13(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020151 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of the predictive capability of three hydrological models, and a mean ensemble of these models, in a heavily influenced catchment in Peninsular India: GWAVA (Global Water AVailability Assessment) model, SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) and VIC (Variable Infiltration [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison of the predictive capability of three hydrological models, and a mean ensemble of these models, in a heavily influenced catchment in Peninsular India: GWAVA (Global Water AVailability Assessment) model, SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) and VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) model. The performance of the three models and their ensemble were investigated in five sub-catchments in the upstream reaches of the Cauvery river catchment. Model performances for monthly streamflow simulations from 1983–2005 were analysed using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, Kling-Gupta efficiency and percent bias. The predictive capability for each model was compared, and the ability to accurately represent key catchment hydrological processes is discussed. This highlighted the importance of an accurate spatial representation of precipitation for input into hydrological models, and that comprehensive reservoir functionality is paramount to obtaining good results in this region. The performance of the mean ensemble was analysed to determine whether the application of a multi-model ensemble approach can be useful in overcoming the uncertainties associated with individual models. It was demonstrated that the ensemble mean has a better predictive ability in catchments with reservoirs than the individual models, with Nash-Sutcliffe values between 0.49 and 0.92. Therefore, utilising multiple models could be a suitable methodology to offset uncertainty in input data and poor reservoir operation functionality within individual models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
Impact of the Mean Daily Air Temperature Calculation on the Rainfall-Runoff Modelling
Water 2020, 12(11), 3175; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113175 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 423
Abstract
Conceptual rainfall-runoff models besides precipitation and discharge data generally require estimates of the mean daily air temperature as input data. For the estimation of the mean daily air temperature, there are different methods available. The paper presents an evaluation of the impact of [...] Read more.
Conceptual rainfall-runoff models besides precipitation and discharge data generally require estimates of the mean daily air temperature as input data. For the estimation of the mean daily air temperature, there are different methods available. The paper presents an evaluation of the impact of the mean daily air temperature calculation on the rainfall-runoff modelling results. Additionally, other measured variables and rating curve uncertainty were assessed. Differences in the mean daily air temperature values were evaluated for the 33 meteorological stations in Slovenia and additional investigations were conducted for four selected meso-scale catchments located in different climates. The results of the application of four equations for the mean air temperature calculation yielded the mean absolute error values between 0.56–0.80 °C. However, the results of rainfall-runoff modelling showed that these differences had an almost negligible impact on the model results. Differences in the mean simulated discharge values were no larger than 1%, while differences in the maximum discharge values were a bit larger, but did not exceed 5%. A somewhat larger impact on the model results was observed when precipitation and water level measurements’ uncertainty was included. However, among all analysed input data uncertainties, the rating curve uncertainty can be regarded as the most influential with differences in the simulated mean discharge values in the range of 3% and differences in the maximum discharge values up to 14%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
Long-Term Modelling of an Agricultural and Urban River Catchment with SWMM Upgraded by the Evapotranspiration Model UrbanEVA
Water 2020, 12(11), 3089; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113089 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) has a decisive effect on groundwater recharge and thus also affects the base flow of the receiving water. This applies above all to low-lying areas with a low depth to groundwater (GW), as is often the case in the north German [...] Read more.
Evapotranspiration (ET) has a decisive effect on groundwater recharge and thus also affects the base flow of the receiving water. This applies above all to low-lying areas with a low depth to groundwater (GW), as is often the case in the north German lowlands. In order to analyze this relation, a coupled rainfall-runoff and hydraulic stream model was set up using the software SWMM-UrbanEVA, a version of the software SWMM that was upgraded by a detailed ET module. A corresponding model was set up for the same site but with the conventional software SWMM to compare the water balance and hydrographs. The total amount of ET calculated with the SWMM software is 7% higher than that computed with the upgraded version in the period considered. Therefore, less water is available for soil infiltration and lateral groundwater flow to the stream. This generally leads to a slight underestimation of base flows, with the exception of a notably wet summer month when the base flows were highly overestimated. Nevertheless, the base flow hydrograph shows a good adaptation to observed values (MAE = 0.014 m3s−1, R = 0.88, NSE = 0.81) but gives worse results compared to SWMM-UrbanEVA. The latter is very well able to reflect the GW-fed base flow in the sample stream in average (MAE = 0.011 m3s−1) and in its dynamics (R = 0.93, NSE = 0.85). By applying the UrbanEVA upgrade, SWMM is applicable to model the seasonal dynamics of near-natural river basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
Effects of Nonhomogeneous Soil Characteristics on the Hydrologic Response: A Case Study
Water 2020, 12(9), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092416 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 450
Abstract
This study examined how different nonhomogeneous soil characteristics affected hydrologic responses in rainfall-runoff models. The cell-based FLO-2D and lumped Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) were setup. Then, water loss parameters of both the Green-Ampt infiltration approach and curve number method were [...] Read more.
This study examined how different nonhomogeneous soil characteristics affected hydrologic responses in rainfall-runoff models. The cell-based FLO-2D and lumped Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) were setup. Then, water loss parameters of both the Green-Ampt infiltration approach and curve number method were prescribed and applied in three different ways: (i) a separate value for each cell (mosaic; (ii) a representative as a most frequent occurring value for a large area (predominant); (iii) and a representative as an arithmetic mean value for a watershed (arithmetic mean). The spatial variability of nonhomogeneous catchment parameters was disregarded in lumped models, while each cell had distinct surface parameters in the distributed models. This study shows that the hydrologic response was meaningfully different in different representations. For the study site, the mosaic method was recommended for distributed models, and arithmetic mean was recommended for lumped models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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Article
Rainfall-Runoff Modeling of the Nested Non-Homogeneous Sava River Sub-Catchments in Slovenia
Water 2020, 12(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010128 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Rainfall-runoff modeling is nowadays applied for water resources management, water system design, real-time forecasting, flood design and can be carried out by using different types of hydrological models. In this study, we focused on lumped conceptual hydrological models and their performance in diverse [...] Read more.
Rainfall-runoff modeling is nowadays applied for water resources management, water system design, real-time forecasting, flood design and can be carried out by using different types of hydrological models. In this study, we focused on lumped conceptual hydrological models and their performance in diverse sub-catchments of the Sava River in Slovenia, related to their size and non-homogeneity. We evaluated the difference between modeled and measured discharges of selected discharge gauging stations, using different model performance criteria that are usually applied in hydrology, connecting the results to geospatial analysis of geological and hydrogeological characteristics, land use, runoff potential, proportion of agglomeration and various meteorological variables. Better model performance was obtained for catchments with a higher runoff potential and with less variations in meteorological variables. Regarding the number of used parameters, the results indicated that the tested Genie Rural 6-parameter Journalier (GR6J) model with 6 parameters performed better than the Genie Rural 4-parameter Journalier (GR4J) model with 4 parameters, especially in the case of larger sub-catchments. These results illustrate the comprehensive nature of lumped models. Thus, they yield good performance in case of the catchments with indistinguishable characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Hydrologic Response of Non­-homogeneous Catchments)
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