Special Issue "Characterizing Groundwater - Surface Water Interaction Using GIS"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Emeritus Phil Gerla
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, United States
Interests: Wetland hydrology; groundwater; water resource conservation; GIS

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Understanding groundwater–surface water interaction from local to global scales is essential for protecting water supply, ecological services, natural habitat, water quality, and environmental resilience. Coupled together with broadly available topographic, soil, land cover–land use, hydrographic, remote sensing, and other spatial data, geographic analysis tools provide the means to discover mechanisms and processes that maintain the interaction of groundwater with precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff. The water balance of lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands has a wide range of dependence on groundwater, which can be most effectively analyzed by modeling and GIS. Less often recognized, especially at larger scales, is the observation that the severity of drought and deluge is usually mollified by groundwater flow and storage. This Special Issue highlights the theories, methods, and case examples of how spatial analysis at variable scales—from local to regional to global—can be used to explore and characterize the connections of groundwater and surface water in diverse natural and human-developed environments.

Prof. Emeritus Phil Gerla
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Groundwater;
  • Surface water;
  • Recharge;
  • Watersheds;
  • Spatial analysis;
  • Geographic information systems;
  • Water quality;
  • Remote sensing;
  • Nonpoint source pollution;
  • Water supply.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Characterizing Groundwater Interaction with Lakes and Wetlands Using GIS Modeling and Natural Water Quality Measurements
Water 2021, 13(7), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070983 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Wetlands provide many benefits, including flood attenuation, groundwater recharge, water-quality improvement, and habitat for wildlife. As their structure and functions are sensitive to changes in hydrology, characterizing the water budgets of wetlands is crucial to effective management and conservation. The groundwater component of [...] Read more.
Wetlands provide many benefits, including flood attenuation, groundwater recharge, water-quality improvement, and habitat for wildlife. As their structure and functions are sensitive to changes in hydrology, characterizing the water budgets of wetlands is crucial to effective management and conservation. The groundwater component of a budget, which often controls resiliency and water quality, is difficult to estimate and can be costly, time-consuming, and invasive. This study used a GIS approach using a digital elevation model (DEM) and the elevations of lakes, wetlands, streams, and hydric soils to produce a water-table surface raster for a portion of the Itasca Moraine, Minnesota, U.S. The water-table surface was used to delineate groundwatersheds and groundwater flow paths for lakes and wetlands, and map recharge and discharge rates across the landscape. Specific conductance and pH, which depend on the hydrological processes that dominate a wetlands water budget, were measured in the field to verify this modeling technique. While the pH of surface waters varied in the study area, specific conductance increased from 16.7 to 357.5 μS/cm downgradient along groundwater flow paths, suggesting increased groundwater interaction. Our results indicate that basic GIS tools and often freely available public-domain elevation datasets can be used to map and characterize the interaction of groundwater in the water budgets of lakes and wetlands, as exemplified by the Itasca Moraine region. Combining this with grid cell-by-cell water balance provides a means to estimate recharge and discharge, thereby affording a way to quantify groundwater contribution to and from lakes and wetlands. Applied elsewhere, this cost-efficient technique can be used to assess the vulnerability of lakes and wetlands to changes in land use, groundwater development, and climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizing Groundwater - Surface Water Interaction Using GIS)
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Article
Quantification and Regionalization of the Interaction between the Doumen Reservoir and Regional Groundwater in the Urban Plains of Northwest China
Water 2021, 13(4), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040540 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Groundwater and artificial reservoirs are in a continuous dynamic interaction that can affect not only water quantity but the quality. In this paper, taking the DR (Doumen Reservoir) as an example, the level dynamic changes between the DRTS (Doumen Reservoir Test Section) and [...] Read more.
Groundwater and artificial reservoirs are in a continuous dynamic interaction that can affect not only water quantity but the quality. In this paper, taking the DR (Doumen Reservoir) as an example, the level dynamic changes between the DRTS (Doumen Reservoir Test Section) and groundwater were discussed, and the water quality used by SFE (single-factor evaluation) and WQI (water quality index) method were analyzed. A coupling model is presented to quantify the leakage impact range and groundwater budget and regionalize the impact of surface water on regional groundwater quality. The results show that the level dynamics of the reservoir and groundwater are highly consistent, with a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.85 and a lag time of about 7 days. The reservoir recharges the groundwater with an increase-decrease-stationary wave dynamic potential. After 3 years of operation of the DR, the groundwater still is recharged, the groundwater level will rise obviously, with a maximum of 8.5 m. The amount of surface water recharged is always 0. NH3-N, and COD will have varying degrees of impact, both of which are mainly the pollution halo around North Lake. The results can provide support for water resources management and environmental protection of urban plain reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizing Groundwater - Surface Water Interaction Using GIS)
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Article
Data-Driven Approach to Assess Spatial-Temporal Interactions of Groundwater and Precipitation in Choushui River Groundwater Basin, Taiwan
Water 2020, 12(11), 3097; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113097 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
The scarcity of groundwater and precipitation stations has limited accurate assessments of basin-scale groundwater systems. This study proposes a workflow that integrates satellite and on-site observations to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of the groundwater level and enable recharge estimations for the [...] Read more.
The scarcity of groundwater and precipitation stations has limited accurate assessments of basin-scale groundwater systems. This study proposes a workflow that integrates satellite and on-site observations to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of the groundwater level and enable recharge estimations for the Choushui River groundwater basin (CRGB) in Western Taiwan. The workflow involves multiple data processing steps, including analysis of correlation, evaluation of residuals, and geostatistical interpolation based on kriging methods. The observed groundwater levels and recharge are then the basis to assess spatial-temporal interactions between groundwater and recharge in the CRGB from 2006 to 2015. Results of correlation analyses show the high correlation between the groundwater level and the land surface elevation in the study area. However, the multicollinearity problem exists for the additional precipitation data added in the correlation analyses. The correlation coefficient, root mean square error, and normalized root mean square parameters indicate that the Regression Kriging (RK) performs better the groundwater variations than the Ordinary Kriging (OK) dose. The data-driven approach estimates an annual groundwater recharge of approximately 1.40 billion tons, representing 37% of the yearly precipitation. The correlation between groundwater levels and groundwater recharge exhibits low or negative correlation zones in the groundwater basin. These zones might have resulted from multipurpose pumping activities and the river and drainage networks in the area. The event-based precipitation and groundwater level have shown strong recharge behavior in the low-land area of the basin. Artificial weir operations at the high-land mountain pass might considerably influence the groundwater and surface water interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizing Groundwater - Surface Water Interaction Using GIS)
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Article
Characterization of Surface Evidence of Groundwater Flow Systems in Continental Mexico
Water 2020, 12(9), 2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092459 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
The dynamics of the underground part of the water cycle greatly influence the features and characteristics of the Earth’s surface. Using Tóth’s theory of groundwater flow systems, surface indicators in Mexico were analyzed to understand the systemic connection between groundwater and the geological [...] Read more.
The dynamics of the underground part of the water cycle greatly influence the features and characteristics of the Earth’s surface. Using Tóth’s theory of groundwater flow systems, surface indicators in Mexico were analyzed to understand the systemic connection between groundwater and the geological framework, relief, soil, water bodies, vegetation, and climate. Recharge and discharge zones of regional groundwater flow systems were identified from evidence on the ground surface. A systematic hydrogeological analysis was made of regional surface indicators, published in official, freely accessible cartographic information at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:1,000,000. From this analysis, six maps of Mexico were generated, titled “Permanent water on the surface”, “Groundwater depth”, “Hydrogeological association of soils”, “Hydrogeological association of vegetation and land use”, “Hydrogeological association of topoforms”, and “Superficial evidence of the presence of groundwater flow systems”. Mexico’s hydrogeological features were produced. The results show that 30% of Mexico is considered to be discharge zones of groundwater flow systems (regional, intermediate, and recharge). Natural recharge processes occur naturally in 57% of the country. This work is the first holistic analysis of groundwater in Mexico carried out at a national–regional scale using only the official information available to the public. These results can be used as the basis for more detailed studies on groundwater and its interaction with the environment, as well as for the development of integrative planning tools to ensure the sustainability of ecosystems and satisfy human needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizing Groundwater - Surface Water Interaction Using GIS)
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Article
A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach to Groundwater Spring Potential Mapping
Water 2019, 11(10), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102013 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
This study proposes a hybrid computational intelligence model that is a combination of alternating decision tree (ADTree) classifier and AdaBoost (AB) ensemble, namely “AB–ADTree”, for groundwater spring potential mapping (GSPM) at the Chilgazi watershed in the Kurdistan province, Iran. Although ADTree and its [...] Read more.
This study proposes a hybrid computational intelligence model that is a combination of alternating decision tree (ADTree) classifier and AdaBoost (AB) ensemble, namely “AB–ADTree”, for groundwater spring potential mapping (GSPM) at the Chilgazi watershed in the Kurdistan province, Iran. Although ADTree and its ensembles have been widely used for environmental and ecological modeling, they have rarely been applied to GSPM. To that end, a groundwater spring inventory map and thirteen conditioning factors tested by the chi-square attribute evaluation (CSAE) technique were used to generate training and testing datasets for constructing and validating the proposed model. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using statistical-index-based measures, such as positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity accuracy, root mean square error (RMSE), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUROC). The proposed hybrid model was also compared with five state-of-the-art benchmark soft computing models, including single ADTree, support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient descent (SGD), logistic model tree (LMT), logistic regression (LR), and random forest (RF). Results indicate that the proposed hybrid model significantly improved the predictive capability of the ADTree-based classifier (AUROC = 0.789). In addition, it was found that the hybrid model, AB–ADTree, (AUROC = 0.815), had the highest goodness-of-fit and prediction accuracy, followed by the LMT (AUROC = 0.803), RF (AUC = 0.803), SGD, and SVM (AUROC = 0.790) models. Indeed, this model is a powerful and robust technique for mapping of groundwater spring potential in the study area. Therefore, the proposed model is a promising tool to help planners, decision makers, managers, and governments in the management and planning of groundwater resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizing Groundwater - Surface Water Interaction Using GIS)
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