Recent Advances in Monitoring and Treatment of Drinking Water Quality

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2022) | Viewed by 31546

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: water treatment; wastewater treatment; waste recycling; water quality; water purification; materials characterization; chemical analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will publish refereed original research papers on innovative research and applications related to the monitoring of water quality at the water source, as well as advances in drinking water treatment. The major issue of drinking water availability for human consumption requires the application of water quality monitoring, taking into account the influence of contaminants, representative locations, as well as temporal and seasonal variability on water quality. Water degradation makes it essential that resources for potable water are adequate for human consumption, requiring a careful selection of smart optimization techniques related to existing or new processes for drinking water production. For this Special Issue, we will consider contributions dealing with, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Drinking water treatments;
  • Water quality monitoring and assessment;
  • Case studies for full-scale optimization;
  • Water purification;
  • Water and environment;
  • Water and life cycle assessment.

The overall aim of this Special Issue is to publish up-to-date developments on the current state of knowledge in theoretical, applied, observational, and methodological studies in which novel approaches and robust results are presented and discussed.

Dr. Kyriaki Kalaitzidou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water treatment
  • water purification
  • drinking water
  • water quality
  • monitoring
  • contaminants
  • optimization
  • sustainability
  • online monitoring
  • water sources

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 2753 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Approach to the Chemistry, Pollution Impact and Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Sources in a Former Industrialized Area of Romania
by Maria-Alexandra Resz, Cecilia Roman, Marin Senila, Anamaria Iulia Török and Eniko Kovacs
Water 2023, 15(6), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061180 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
Water wells used as drinking sources, located in a Romanian urban area, were characterized from four novel points of view: typology, chemical parameters, heavy metal pollution and human health risk assessment. Physico-chemical parameters and trace metals were analyzed and compared to regulatory reference [...] Read more.
Water wells used as drinking sources, located in a Romanian urban area, were characterized from four novel points of view: typology, chemical parameters, heavy metal pollution and human health risk assessment. Physico-chemical parameters and trace metals were analyzed and compared to regulatory reference values related to drinking water quality. Piper, TIS and Gibbs diagrams were used for determining the typology of waters. The pollution index was calculated with the aim of determining the pollution levels. Human health risk indices were used for determining the potential non-carcinogenic risks type of heavy metals and nitrogen compounds. The results indicated that water samples were characterized by contamination with nitrogen compounds and Cd, Mn and Pb. Pollution scores indicated both low and high pollution degrees. Based on the health risk assessment, waters were classified as safe for drinking related to the heavy metal content, for both adults and children. Nonetheless, non-carcinogenic risks in NO2 and NO3 can occur if waters are consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Monitoring and Treatment of Drinking Water Quality)
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16 pages, 2055 KiB  
Article
Influence of Water Treatment Technology on the Stability of Tap Water
by Andżelika Domoń, Dorota Papciak and Barbara Tchórzewska-Cieślak
Water 2023, 15(5), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050911 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2677
Abstract
Control of water quality changes in the distribution system is an important issue, due to consumer health, and a threat to technical infrastructure. Annual monitoring of water quality allowed us to analyze the physical, chemical, and biological stability of water produced in two [...] Read more.
Control of water quality changes in the distribution system is an important issue, due to consumer health, and a threat to technical infrastructure. Annual monitoring of water quality allowed us to analyze the physical, chemical, and biological stability of water produced in two different technological systems. The article examines the extent to which water purification technology affects the possibility of uncontrolled changes in water quality during its transport to the consumer (the risk of secondary water pollution has been estimated). Based on the obtained results, it was found that the groundwater treatment system based on the following processes—aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection—does not ensure the effective elimination of biogenic substances that determine sanitary safety. The treatment technology extended by an additional biofiltration process on granulated activated carbons (GAC) contributed to the improvement of the quality of the treated water (lowering the content of nutrients) and reduced the risk of losing the biological stability of the water in the distribution system. The biofiltration process did not change the physical and chemical stability of the water; the calculated corrosiveness indicators showed that the waters are devoid of aggressive properties, with a tendency to precipitate CaCO3. The production of stable water is a step forward in controlling water quality from source to tap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Monitoring and Treatment of Drinking Water Quality)
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20 pages, 4434 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Fly-Ash-Contaminated Wastewater Loaded with Heavy Metals by Using Fly-Ash-Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
by Virendra Kumar Yadav, Abdelfattah Amari, Amel Gacem, Noureddine Elboughdiri, Lienda Bashier Eltayeb and M. H. Fulekar
Water 2023, 15(5), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050908 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3415
Abstract
Every year, a huge amount of water is polluted by various sources, out of which coal fly ash (CFA) is one of the major pollutants. CFA has a large number of toxic metals, which reaches water bodies by coming in contact with water [...] Read more.
Every year, a huge amount of water is polluted by various sources, out of which coal fly ash (CFA) is one of the major pollutants. CFA has a large number of toxic metals, which reaches water bodies by coming in contact with water or rain. Due to heavy-metal contamination, water becomes unfit for drinking for human beings, which in long term may cause several disorders. Thus, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) recovered from waste, such as CFA, could be the most promising material for treating wastewater, due to their low-cost, recyclable nature and magnetic property. The synthesis of IONPs from CFA involves three sequential steps. The first step involves extraction of ferrous materials from CFA, followed by acidic treatment of ferrous materials to obtain acidic leachate, and lastly the precipitation of iron oxides by an alkali. The particle size of the synthesized IONPs varied from 30–70 nm and purity was about 90–93%, as confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS). Further, the synthesized IONPs were used for the remediation of various heavy metals, especially Pb and Cr ions from 20% CFA aqueous solutions. The heavy-metal removal efficiency of IONPs varied from 40–70%. The developed method suggests heavy-metal removal from wastewater by using an economical and greener route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Monitoring and Treatment of Drinking Water Quality)
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17 pages, 455 KiB  
Article
Water-Quality Prediction Based on H2O AutoML and Explainable AI Techniques
by Hamza Ahmad Madni, Muhammad Umer, Abid Ishaq, Nihal Abuzinadah, Oumaima Saidani, Shtwai Alsubai, Monia Hamdi and Imran Ashraf
Water 2023, 15(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030475 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7311
Abstract
Rapid expansion of the world’s population has negatively impacted the environment, notably water quality. As a result, water-quality prediction has arisen as a hot issue during the last decade. Existing techniques fall short in terms of good accuracy. Furthermore, presently, the dataset available [...] Read more.
Rapid expansion of the world’s population has negatively impacted the environment, notably water quality. As a result, water-quality prediction has arisen as a hot issue during the last decade. Existing techniques fall short in terms of good accuracy. Furthermore, presently, the dataset available for analysis contains missing values; these missing values have a significant effect on the performance of the classifiers. An automated system for water-quality prediction that deals with the missing values efficiently and achieves good accuracy for water-quality prediction is proposed in this study. To handle the accuracy problem, this study makes use of the stacked ensemble H2O AutoML model; to handle the missing values, this study makes use of the KNN imputer. Moreover, the performance of the proposed system is compared to that of seven machine learning algorithms. Experiments are performed in two scenarios: removing missing values and using the KNN imputer. The contribution of each feature regarding prediction is explained using SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations). Results reveal that the proposed stacked model outperforms other models with 97% accuracy, 96% precision, 99% recall, and 98% F1-score for water-quality prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Monitoring and Treatment of Drinking Water Quality)
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16 pages, 4455 KiB  
Article
Water Resources and Water Quality Assessment, Central Bamyan, Afghanistan
by Hasan Ali Malistani, Hussain Ali Jawadi, Roy C. Sidle, Masuma Khawary and Aziz Ali Khan
Water 2022, 14(19), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193060 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3614
Abstract
We surveyed and selectively sampled the major water sources in Bamyan city and the surrounding area to assess the water quality. Water quality measurements were taken in situ and more samples were collected for laboratory analysis from canals, rivers, springs, wells, and water [...] Read more.
We surveyed and selectively sampled the major water sources in Bamyan city and the surrounding area to assess the water quality. Water quality measurements were taken in situ and more samples were collected for laboratory analysis from canals, rivers, springs, wells, and water supply systems. In urban areas, water supply systems provide 36% of the drinking water, but in rural areas, this source accounts for only 7% of drinking water supplies. Wells comprise 33% and 15% of urban and rural water supplies, respectively, while canals and rivers are modest water sources for Bamyan communities. Basic water quality parameters, such as pH, EC, and TDS, were variable with high values in some areas. Most of the samples fall in the range of potable water, but some had a high TDS and EC indicating that there is the potential of contamination. Values of pH were mostly were mostly in the range of drinking water (6.5–9.5). A Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) was calculated to better understand the water quality issues for the potable water supplies. Subsets of representative samples were analyzed for 17 selected chemical elements and other constituents. Barium (Ba) was detected in almost all of the water samples, while arsenic (As) was detected in about 9% of the analyzed samples, and this was mostly associated with thermal springs. Concentrations of Mn and Cu in some samples exceeded that of the water quality standards, while Zn concentrations were below tolerable limits in all of the samples. Most of the analyzed water samples were hard, and several samples showed evidence of microbial pollution in urban areas. Rivers originating from snow and glacier melting had excellent quality for drinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Monitoring and Treatment of Drinking Water Quality)
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Review

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22 pages, 2122 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in 1,4-Dioxane Removal Technologies for Water and Wastewater Treatment
by Yuyin Tang and Xinwei Mao
Water 2023, 15(8), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081535 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6660
Abstract
1,4-Dioxane is a contaminant of emerging concern and a probable human carcinogen that has been widely detected in aqueous environments. However, the removal of 1,4-dioxane by conventional water and wastewater treatment plants had proven to be ineffective due to its unique physicochemical properties. [...] Read more.
1,4-Dioxane is a contaminant of emerging concern and a probable human carcinogen that has been widely detected in aqueous environments. However, the removal of 1,4-dioxane by conventional water and wastewater treatment plants had proven to be ineffective due to its unique physicochemical properties. The development of innovative technologies for both in-situ and ex-situ treatment of 1,4-dioxane to meet increasingly strict standards is in urgent need. This review summarizes the current available physicochemical and biological treatment technologies for the removal of 1,4-dioxane from both water and wastewater and the strategies that may potentially fulfill the stringent 1,4-dioxane standard were discussed. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as ultraviolet radiation coupled with H2O2 (8–10 mg L−1), had shown efficient 1,4-dioxane destruction and had already been applied for both water and wastewater treatment processes. On the other hand, more than 30 pure microbial strains and microbial communities that can metabolically or metabolically degrade 1,4-dioxane were reported. Biodegradation has been proven to be a feasible and cost-effective approach for 1,4-dioxane remediation. Suspended growth bioreactor, immobilized cell bioreactor, and biofiltration systems were the most commonly used biological approaches to remove 1,4-dioxane from contaminated water. Though 1,4-dioxane easily desorbs after the adsorption by materials such as granular activated carbon (GAC) and zeolite, temporary 1,4-dioxane removal by adsorption followed by 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in the bioaugmented adsorption media may be a feasible strategy treating 1,4-dioxane contaminated water. Overall, the treatment chain that combines physical-chemical processes and biodegradation has a great potential for synergistic removal of 1,4-dioxane at lower operating costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Monitoring and Treatment of Drinking Water Quality)
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19 pages, 2071 KiB  
Review
The State of the Art and Emerging Trends in the Wastewater Treatment in Developing Nations
by Sangha Bijekar, Hemanshi D. Padariya, Virendra Kumar Yadav, Amel Gacem, Mohd Abul Hasan, Nasser S. Awwad, Krishna Kumar Yadav, Saiful Islam, Sungmin Park and Byong-Hun Jeon
Water 2022, 14(16), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162537 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5120
Abstract
Water is the founding fundamental of life and hence is a basic need of life. However, due to the ever-rising population, industrialization has emerged as a global issue. This problem has notably escalated in developing countries. Their citizens face problems such as floods, [...] Read more.
Water is the founding fundamental of life and hence is a basic need of life. However, due to the ever-rising population, industrialization has emerged as a global issue. This problem has notably escalated in developing countries. Their citizens face problems such as floods, drought, and poor water quality. Due to poor water quality and sanitation problems, most health issues are caused by water-borne infections. In developing countries, untreated wastewater is released into water bodies or the ground, thereby polluting natural resources. This is due to the lack of sufficient infrastructure, planning, funding, and technologies to overcome these problems. Additionally, the urbanization of megacities in developing countries is highly accelerated, but it is disproportionate to the required resources for treating wastewater. Due to this biological oxygen demand (BOD): chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio is increasing exponentially in developing countries compared to developed ones. Spreading awareness, education and supporting relevant research, and making stringent rules for industries can alone solve the water problem in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Monitoring and Treatment of Drinking Water Quality)
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