Special Issue "Excessive Water and Drainage Management in Agriculture: Disaster, Facilities Operation and Pollution Control"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 4705

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Junzeng Xu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Interests: efficient irrigation; non-point pollution; greenhouse gas emission; evapotranspiration
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Shaoli Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Irrigation and Drainage, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100048, China
Interests: agricultural drainage; soil salinity control; non-point pollution
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Xinhua Jia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, 1340 Administration Ave, Fargo, ND 58105, USA
Interests: irrigation and drainage; evapotranspiration; hydrology; water quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Excessive water in fields leads to damage to crop production, and there is increasing uncertainty of precipitation under the circumstance of climate change, making this issue increasingly serious. Understanding the response of different crops to excessive water or waterlogging, improving techniques for large-scale waterlogging monitoring or drainage management, and developing models to reflect the field water balance and the impact of waterlogging on crop yield (which will help to determine the optimal drainage management practices) are essential for improving drainage management for different crops. Meanwhile, drainage from agricultural fields is linked to nonpoint pollution, and strategies to reduce nutrient discharge from agricultural fields by means of drainage management, nutrient management, and wetlands or water reuse is vitally important. This Issue can bring some new ideas for drainage management from the perspective of waterlogging disaster management, as well as nonpoint pollution control.

Prof. Dr. Junzeng Xu
Prof. Dr. Shaoli Wang
Prof. Dr. Xinhua Jia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • crop response to waterlogging stress and countermeasures
  • drainage management
  • tile drainage
  • control drainage
  • waterlogging monitoring with remote sensing or proximal remote sensing
  • models for field water balance, runoff and waterlogging
  • crop models and their implication for waterlogging stress
  • optimization of drainage facilities management
  • field nutrients discharge and nonpoint pollution control
  • best management practices (BMPs) to reduce nutrients/pollutants in agricultural drainage
  • water reuse
  • other new techniques, such as soil aeration and nutrient management

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Excessive Water and Drainage Management in Agriculture: Disaster, Facilities Operation and Pollution Control
Water 2022, 14(16), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162500 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Floods and waterlogging are among the main natural disasters affecting agriculture, causing land inundation or excess soil water during and after extreme rainfall events, which drastically affects crop productivity and food security [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Optimized Main Ditch Water Control for Agriculture in Northern Huaihe River Plain, Anhui Province, China, Using MODFLOW Groundwater Table Simulations
Water 2022, 14(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010029 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
Controlled drainage by regulating the groundwater level in open ditches is necessary to ensure the normal growth of crops in Northern Huaihe River Plain, China. The groundwater model MODFLOW was calibrated and validated in a representative area, and was then conducted to simulate [...] Read more.
Controlled drainage by regulating the groundwater level in open ditches is necessary to ensure the normal growth of crops in Northern Huaihe River Plain, China. The groundwater model MODFLOW was calibrated and validated in a representative area, and was then conducted to simulate the groundwater under different main drainage ditch water depth control schemes during the growth period of corn and wheat. Then the scenario with highest water depth (Scenario 20) from 1989 to 2019 was simulated, and the annual cumulative drought and waterlogging intensity (ACDWI) were analyzed in each decade and in different hydrological years. The results showed that the study area was dominated by drought stress. The lowest level of drought stress was achieved under Scenario 20. The frequency of drought gradually decreased from north to south in the study area. Moreover, the ACDWI decreased with increase of precipitation during 1989 to 2019. The results indicated that it was important to store water during the dry season, while it is also necessary to control the drainage in the rainy season to drain excess water on time. The results suggested that the water depth of the main drainage ditch should be regulated by zoning and by season to alleviate crop drought and waterlogging. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Drainage Water Detention Efficiency of Off-Line Ditch-Pond Systems and Its Influencing Factors
Water 2021, 13(21), 3029; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213029 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 545
Abstract
Ditch-pond systems can effectively alleviate the adverse effects of agricultural drainage on downstream canals and flood control in downstream areas. In this study, peak flow reduction rate (PFR) and drainage volume detention rate (DVD) are used to evaluate the effectiveness of an off-line [...] Read more.
Ditch-pond systems can effectively alleviate the adverse effects of agricultural drainage on downstream canals and flood control in downstream areas. In this study, peak flow reduction rate (PFR) and drainage volume detention rate (DVD) are used to evaluate the effectiveness of an off-line ditch-pond system for reducing peak flow, retarding agricultural drainage water, and examining the key influencing factors. The results show that the PFR and DVD of the off-line ditch-pond system are significantly affected by three parameters: weir depth (Ld), weir width (Lw), and pond area-to-drainage area ratio (Ksp). Both the PFR and DVD increase with the increase in Ld, Lw, and Ksp. The effects of Ld and Lw on the PFR and the DVD are significant, whereas that Ksp is relatively small. Adjusting Ld and Lw increases both the PFR and DVD up to 80%. Specifically, Ld contributes 75% of the variations in the PFR and the DVD, and Lw affects only 17% of the PFR variations and 11% of the DVD variations. These findings confirm that an off-line ditch-pond system can be effectively used for the detention of agricultural drainage water. Thus, when such a system is designed with an appropriate diversion weir, the impact of agricultural drainage water on downstream canals and downstream areas can be reduced remarkably. Full article
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Article
Performance Evaluation of Different Combined Drainage Forms on Flooding and Waterlogging Removal
Water 2021, 13(21), 2968; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212968 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
Farmland in southern China is prone to flooding and waterlogging alternation after short-term heavy rainfall. Single drainage form cannot meet the requirements of the farmland flooding and waterlogging removal. Drainage measures and layout forms should be explored to alleviate flooding and waterlogging threat [...] Read more.
Farmland in southern China is prone to flooding and waterlogging alternation after short-term heavy rainfall. Single drainage form cannot meet the requirements of the farmland flooding and waterlogging removal. Drainage measures and layout forms should be explored to alleviate flooding and waterlogging threat and improve crop yield. So, based on an indoor sand tank experiment, this paper presents a combined drainage form: conventional subsurface drainage as an auxiliary drainage measure and is alternatively combined with open ditch (OD), filter drainage (FD), conventional (CD) and improved subsurface drainage (ID), respectively, under equal and unequal drain depth. The performance of different combined drainage forms and the effect of auxiliary drainage measures are discussed for stable ponding and receding water. During the experiment, two factors—drainage measure and drain depth—are considered. The results indicate that compared with the conventional subsurface drainage alone, the flow rates of the open-ditch, thin-improved, and thick-improved subsurface drainage combined with conventional subsurface drainage can be increased by 22.4–32.3%, 10.6–16.2%, and 29.8–32%, respectively, under equal drain depth in stable ponding water. Among the four combined drainage forms, the flow rate of shallow–deep combination is 8.1–17.1% higher than that of the shallow–shallow combination. Compared with a single drainage form, the flow rates of the combined drainage have the same change characteristics over time. Additionally, the use of auxiliary, conventional, subsurface drainage can improve the flooding and waterlogging removal efficiency in farmland. For the combined drainage forms, the contribution degree of the open-ditch and thin-improved subsurface drainage is 51.3–56.7%, while the thick-improved subsurface drainage is approximately 61.0%, under equal drain depth conditions in the flooding removal process. Moreover, open-ditch and thick-improved subsurface drainage combined with conventional subsurface drainage have significant advantages in flooding and waterlogging removal, which were 11.5–38.1% and 37.1–48.6% faster than conventional subsurface drainage in flooding removal time, 14.3–157.1% and 14.3–44.4% faster than conventional subsurface drainage in the waterlogging removal time. The synergistic application of shallow–deep and medium–medium combinations can be carried out by exploiting the advantages of each drainage measure. The experimental flow rate observation is in good agreement with the theoretically calculated value, with a relative error of less than 5%. These research findings could provide technical support for the increased application of combined drainage forms in areas prone to flooding and waterlogging. Full article
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Article
Optimal Operation Model of Drainage Works for Minimizing Waterlogging Loss in Paddy Fields
Water 2021, 13(20), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202811 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
The risk of flood or waterlogging in irrigation districts has increased due to global climate change and intensive human activities. A Model of Optimal Operation of Drainage Works (MOODW) for flat irrigation district was established by incorporating the hydrological model of waterlogging process [...] Read more.
The risk of flood or waterlogging in irrigation districts has increased due to global climate change and intensive human activities. A Model of Optimal Operation of Drainage Works (MOODW) for flat irrigation district was established by incorporating the hydrological model of waterlogging process and waterlogging loss estimation, which was solved by an optimization method of genetic algorithm. The model of waterlogging process was built based on a modified Tank model and hydrodynamic model for the ditch-river system. The waterlogging loss is calculated under the condition of inconstant inundated depth by linear interpolation. The adaptive genetic algorithm with the global optimization function was selected to solve the model. With an extreme rainfall events in Gaoyou irrigation district as cases, results showed that operation time and numbers of pumps increased; thus, operating costs were 1.4 times higher than before, but the yield loss of rice decreased by 35.4% observably. Finally, the total waterlogging loss was reduced by 33.8% compared with the traditional operation of waterlogging work. The most significant improvement was found in units with high waterlogging vulnerability. The MOODW can provide the waterlogging information visually and assist the district manager in making a reasonable decision. Full article
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Article
The Waterlogging Process Model in the Paddy Fields of Flat Irrigation Districts
Water 2021, 13(19), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192668 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 555
Abstract
Flat, low-lying agricultural areas such as irrigation districts in southern China have been increasingly vulnerable to flood inundation disasters because of the increased runoff associated with urbanization and climate change. In this study, we developed a waterlogging process simulation model comprising two parts: [...] Read more.
Flat, low-lying agricultural areas such as irrigation districts in southern China have been increasingly vulnerable to flood inundation disasters because of the increased runoff associated with urbanization and climate change. In this study, we developed a waterlogging process simulation model comprising two parts: runoff generation module and runoff confluence module. An improved tank model and hydrodynamic model based on Saint–Venant equations were adopted in the runoff generation and confluence module, respectively. The results show that the model’s relative error and root mean square error are 2.1% and 0.17 mm/h, and the Nash coefficient of the model is 0.91. The relative error of river level simulation was within 5%, and the Nash coefficient was higher than 0.9. The proposed waterlogging simulation model could be a valuable tool for describing the process of waterlogging generation, accumulation, and confluence in the studied irrigation district or other regions with similar climatic conditions. Full article
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