Special Issue "Biofiltration and Physicochemical Filtration for Water Treatment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Francisco Osorio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Water, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Ramón y Cajal Street, 4, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: water treatment; biofiltration; nitrogen removal; granular systems; salinity; emergent contaminants; molecular biology; WWTP by-products; sewage networks
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to submit your latest research findings showing progress in biofiltration and physicochemical filtration for water treatment to a Special Issue in Water (ISSN 2073-4441)—an open access journal (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/water).

Biofiltration is a technology of great interest since the costs of installation and above all exploitation costs are much lower than those associated with other technologies based on physical-chemical processes. There are certain applications where the experience with biofiltration has been more widespread, but there are others where the application of biological systems has been traditionally minor. Nowadays the use of biofiltration is increasing every day.

On the other hand, the physicochemical filtration process is a successful technology in numerous applications in the field of water treatment. In many cases, the mechanisms for removing contaminants that develop in a filter are complex. Thus, its efficiency may be due to the simple piscochemical mechanisms that characterize any filtration process, but it is also common the development of biofilms on the surface of the filtering materials, so that in part that efficiency can have been achieved biologically.

That is why we understand the importance of including in the same volume works on the application of any filtration process in water treatment. If possible, some discussion about the mechanisms for removing contaminants in each case is welcome.

This issue of the journal is focused on the treatment of all types of effluents through filtration: Drinking water, urban wastewater, industrial wastewater and stormwater. The focus of the papers can take into consideration different benefits in terms of sustainability: contaminants removal, by-products recovery, energy efficiency and cost, carbon footprint.

We encourge submissions reporting findings on elimination of emergent contaminants, heavy metals or specific contaminant organic compounds. Both physical-chemical or microbiological testing approaches are welcome. The optimisation of operational conditions is also a very interesting point: Washing (frecuency, protocols, intensity), evolution of head loss, optimum aeration, pH and redox potential control, material loss, reagents dosification (influence on efficiency and costs, optimum point of dosification), impact of returns on efficiencies.

Finally, we encourage submissions analysing different materials as filtering medium.

Prof. Dr. Francisco Osorio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water Treatment
  • Filtration
  • Biofiltration
  • Phisicochemical process
  • Operation optimization
  • Filtering material
  • contaminants removal
  • Salinity
  • Identification of microbiological communities activity

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Electroadsorption of Bromide from Natural Water in Granular Activated Carbon
Water 2021, 13(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050598 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The adsorption and electroadsorption of bromide from natural water has been studied in a filter-press electrochemical cell using a commercial granular activated carbon as the adsorbent. During electroadsorption experiments, different voltages were applied (2 V, 3 V and 4 V) under anodic conditions. [...] Read more.
The adsorption and electroadsorption of bromide from natural water has been studied in a filter-press electrochemical cell using a commercial granular activated carbon as the adsorbent. During electroadsorption experiments, different voltages were applied (2 V, 3 V and 4 V) under anodic conditions. The presence of the electric field improves the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon. The decrease in bromide concentration observed at high potentials (3 V or 4 V) may be due to the electrochemical transformation of bromide to Br2. The anodic treatment produces a higher decrease in the concentration of bromide in the case of cathodic electroadsorption. Moreover, in this anodic electroadsorption, if the system is again put under open circuit conditions, no desorption of the bromide is produced. In the case of anodic treatment in the following adsorption process after 24 h of treatment at 3 V, a new decrease in the bromide concentration is observed as a consequence of the decrease in bromide concentration after the electrochemical stage. It can be concluded that the electroadsorption process is effective against the elimination of bromide and total bromine in water, with a content of 345 and 470 µg L−1, respectively, reaching elimination values of 46% in a single-stage electroadsorption process in bromide and total bromine. The application of the electric field to the activated carbon with a positive polarization (anodic electroadsorption) increases the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon significantly, achieving a reduction of up to 220 µg L−1 after 1 h of contact with water. The two stage process in which a previous electrochemical oxidation is incorporated before the electroadsorption stage significantly increased the efficiency from 46% in a single electroadsorption step at 3 V, to 59% in two stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofiltration and Physicochemical Filtration for Water Treatment)
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Article
Biochar from Agricultural by-Products for the Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Drinking Water
Water 2020, 12(10), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102933 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
This study reports the adsorption capacity of lead Pb2+ and cadmium Cd2+ of biochar obtained from: peanut shell (BCM), “chonta” pulp (BCH) and corn cob (BZM) calcined at 500, 600 and 700 °C, respectively. The optimal adsorbent dose, pH, maximum adsorption [...] Read more.
This study reports the adsorption capacity of lead Pb2+ and cadmium Cd2+ of biochar obtained from: peanut shell (BCM), “chonta” pulp (BCH) and corn cob (BZM) calcined at 500, 600 and 700 °C, respectively. The optimal adsorbent dose, pH, maximum adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics were evaluated. The biochar with the highest Pb2+ and Cd2+ removal capacity is obtained from the peanut shell (BCM) calcined at 565 °C in 45 min. The optimal experimental conditions were: 14 g L−1 (dose of sorbent) and pH between 5 and 7. The sorption experimental data were best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. High removal rates were obtained: 95.96% for Pb2+ and 99.05. for Cd2+. The BCH and BZM revealed lower efficiency of Pb2+ and Cd2+ removal than BCM biochar. The results suggest that biochar may be useful for the removal of heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+) from drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofiltration and Physicochemical Filtration for Water Treatment)
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Article
Expansion and Headloss Dependencies for Flowrate and Fluidization during Backwashing of Sand, Anthracite and Filtralite® Expanded Aluminosilicate Filters
Water 2020, 12(10), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102790 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
The backwash expansion rates and headloss evolution of single- and dual-media granular filters of Filtralite® expanded aluminosilicate clay were compared with fine and coarser sand, as well as anthracite. Filtralite is manufactured in Norway, Årnesvegen 1, N-2009 Nordby. Abbreviations used for Filtralite [...] Read more.
The backwash expansion rates and headloss evolution of single- and dual-media granular filters of Filtralite® expanded aluminosilicate clay were compared with fine and coarser sand, as well as anthracite. Filtralite is manufactured in Norway, Årnesvegen 1, N-2009 Nordby. Abbreviations used for Filtralite is; N = Normal density, H = High density, C = Crushed. Each material had different particle densities and grain size distributions. The scope of the investigation was narrow: a clean-bed test was executed once for each parameter on single samples. As temperature affects the viscosity of water, tests were carried out within two temperature ranges (13–17 °C and 21–26 °C), and the effect on the fluidization of the materials was observed. The trial established that although the three types of materials have different physical properties, the expansion behaviors generally correlate with the grain sizes and particle densities of the media. To reach the expansion target of 15%, sand 1.2–2.0 mm (particle density 2656 kg/m3) required a flow rate of 67 m/h, Filtralite HC 0.8–1.6 (1742 kg/m3) required 34 m/h, and anthracite 0.8–1.6 mm (1355 kg/m3) required 15 m/h. The headloss peaks that indicate fluidization were found to correspond with the onset of expansion with increasing flow rate. This was for the example observed by fluidization of 0.4–0.6 mm sand (particle density 2698 kg/m3) at 0.94 m/m, fluidization of Filtralite HC 0.5–1 (1873 kg/m3) at 0.46 m/m and anthracite 0.8–1.6 mm (1355 kg/m3) at 0.21 m/m. Tests of dual-media filters of two types of Filtralite, i.e., Mono Multi and Mono Multi Fine, were also included. The backwash column used for the experiment consisted of extruded acrylic pipes with digital pressure sensors, an electronic flowmeter, a stepless pump and a water cycling system. A laminar water flow was provided by a mesh and a diffusor fixed above a single nozzle. No air was used. The trial was comparative, and its purpose was to shed light on the required water flow rates needed to fully expand different materials, and hence indicate requirements for performing proper filter backwashes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofiltration and Physicochemical Filtration for Water Treatment)
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Article
WWTP Effluent Quality Improvement for Agricultural Reuse Using an Autonomous Prototype
Water 2020, 12(8), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082240 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
Wastewater reuse presents a promising way to mitigate the risk to global water resources and achieve sustainability in water, especially in agricultural areas in the southeast of Spain, such as the Murcia region. However, the risks related to the presence of contaminants of [...] Read more.
Wastewater reuse presents a promising way to mitigate the risk to global water resources and achieve sustainability in water, especially in agricultural areas in the southeast of Spain, such as the Murcia region. However, the risks related to the presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) or pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent suggest the need to implement effective and relatively low-cost tertiary treatments. With this aim, a self-sustainable pilot prototype based on three combined modules (disc-filtration, granular activated carbon (GAC) bed adsorption and UV disinfection) assisted by solar panels was installed as an alternative tertiary treatment in a conventional WWTP in the Murcia region. The obtained results clearly confirmed the efficiency of the proposed prototype for CECs removal, and showed optimal results at a workflow of 500 L/h. In all cases, high removal efficiency was obtained for the different indicator microorganisms described in the recently published Regulation (EU) 2020/741 (E. coli, F-specific coliphages, somatic coliphages, total coliphages, and Clostridium perfringens). The protection of the activated carbon by disc-filters and the energy autonomy and self-operation of the prototype resulted in an efficient and economically viable methodology for its implementation in both conventional WWTPs and in isolated areas attached to crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofiltration and Physicochemical Filtration for Water Treatment)
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Article
Biostability of Tap Water—A Qualitative Analysis of Health Risk in the Example of Groundwater Treatment (Semi-Technical Scale)
Water 2018, 10(12), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121764 - 01 Dec 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
This article presents results of research which aimed to assess the impact of biofiltration processing on the biological stability of water. Effectiveness of biogenic substances removal (C, N, P) and bacteriological quality of water after the biofiltration process were discussed. The research was [...] Read more.
This article presents results of research which aimed to assess the impact of biofiltration processing on the biological stability of water. Effectiveness of biogenic substances removal (C, N, P) and bacteriological quality of water after the biofiltration process were discussed. The research was carried out on a semi-technical scale on natural underground water rich in organic compounds. A filter with a biologically active carbon (BAC) bed was used for the research. Despite the low water temperature of between 9–12 °C, there was a high efficiency of organic matter removal—33–70%. The number of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria in the water before and after the biofiltration process was comparable (0–23 CFU/mL) and met the requirements for drinking water. No E. coli was detected in the water samples. The biological material washed out of the filter bed did not cause deterioration of water quality which proved that the operating parameters of the biofilters were properly chosen, i.e., contact time of 30 min, filtration speed up to 3 m/h. Reduction of the content of nutrients in the treated water limits the risk of microbial growth and thus the emergence of biological growth in the distribution system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofiltration and Physicochemical Filtration for Water Treatment)
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