Special Issue "Hydrological Impact of Typhoon on Rivers"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Jr-chuan Huang
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography, National Taiwan University
Interests: hydrological modelling; simulation; land sliding and sediment export; nitrogen cycling within watersheds
Prof. Tsung-Yu Lee
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography, National Taiwan Normal University
Interests: sediment export, climate change, sustainability, watershed management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rivers link terrestrial and marine ecosystems, not only transporting numerous substances downstream, but also shaping lanscapes and fostering aquatic ecosystems through the interactions of biogeochemical processes with numerous agents. In this regard, rainstorms are regarded as an episodic, strong trigger that accelerates riverine transport and causes sequestrial effects. Recently, global warming has accelerated water cycling via thermodynamics and thus the frequency and intensity of extreme events have been enhanced. The intensified extreme events inevitably stimulate the response of river systems through sediment and nutrient transport, as well as the associated biogeochemical processes. Those strong impacts on river systems should be comprehensively explored. This issue aims to improve the understanding of rainstorm effects in river systems. Inter- and cross-discipline studies on different watershed scales, linking ecosystem services and on watershed management are particularly welcome.

Prof. Jr-chuan Huang
Prof. Tsung-Yu Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hydrological modelling
  • extreme events
  • sediment and nutrient export
  • nutrient cycling within watersheds

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Interaction Among Controlling Factors on Riverine DIN Export in Small Mountainous Rivers of Taiwan: Inseparable Human-Landscape System
Water 2020, 12(11), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112981 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emission via different pathways has shown prominent impact on aquatic ecosystems for decades, but the effects of interaction among climate-, landscape- and human-associated variables on riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly NO3 and NH4+) [...] Read more.
Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emission via different pathways has shown prominent impact on aquatic ecosystems for decades, but the effects of interaction among climate-, landscape- and human-associated variables on riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly NO3 and NH4+) export are unclear. In this study, the data of 43 watersheds with a wide range of climate-, landscape- and human-associated gradients across Taiwan were evaluated with partial redundancy analysis (pRDA) to examine their interactive controls on riverine DIN export. Results show that the annual riverine DIN export in Taiwan is approximately 3100 kg-N km−2 yr−1, spanning from 230 kg-N km−2 yr−1 in less disturbed watersheds (eastern and central Taiwan) to 10,000 kg-N km−2 yr−1 in watersheds with intensive human intervention (southwestern and northern Taiwan). NO3 is generally the single dominant form of DIN, while NH4+ renders significance in disturbed watersheds. Nearly all environmental variables display a positive correlation with DIN export, except for landscape setting variables (e.g., slope, area, channel length), which show a negative relationship. In terms of seasonal pattern, climate and human-landscape variables are related to NO3 export independently in the wet season, yet in the dry season climate-human variables jointly dominate NO3 export. Meanwhile, human-landscape (LH) variables (l1 of LH > 0.60) control NH4+ exports in both seasons, and human-associated (H) variables (l1 of H = 0.13) have a minor effect on NH4+ exports in dry season. Precisely, the contribution of controlling variables on DIN export vary with species and seasons, indicating water quality management could be time-dependent, which should be taken into consideration for designing mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Impact of Typhoon on Rivers)
Open AccessArticle
Investigating Sediment Dynamics in a Landslide-Dominated Catchment by Modeling Landslide Area and Fluvial Sediment Export
Water 2020, 12(10), 2907; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102907 - 18 Oct 2020
Abstract
Few models are capable of simultaneously simulating the sequences of landslide occurrence and sediment export. Quantification of the temporarily stored sediment within the watershed plays a key role to link hillslope landslides with fluvial sediment export. In this study, two coupled models were [...] Read more.
Few models are capable of simultaneously simulating the sequences of landslide occurrence and sediment export. Quantification of the temporarily stored sediment within the watershed plays a key role to link hillslope landslides with fluvial sediment export. In this study, two coupled models were proposed to simulate time-series total landslide area and the subsequent sediment export on a daily basis with only the inputs of rainfall and runoff. The landslide model considers per-existing and models new landslide, and the sediment transport model incorporates a sediment storage variable. The landslide and sediment transport model were well evaluated with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (EC) of 0.89 and logarithmic Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (EClog) of 0.90, respectively, in the Tsengwen Reservoir watershed in southern Taiwan by using long-term observed data (2005–2015). It is found that reactivated landslides were up to 72% of the pre-landslide area, which contributed sediment comparable to the new landslide. Besides, the landslide model indicates that pre-landslide area controls the total landslide area but when rainfall is large it takes control in turn. With the simulation of sediment storage, the sediment transport model can well simulate the sediment export after the catastrophic event (typhoon Morakot in 2009). During the post-Morakot period, small rainfall and runoff can lead to high sediment export owing to the storage of Morakot-triggered landslide. This model will be a useful tool to diagnose the sediment dynamics in the watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Impact of Typhoon on Rivers)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Land Cover and Atmospheric Input on Nutrient Budget in Subtropical Mountainous Rivers, Northeastern Taiwan
Water 2020, 12(10), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102800 - 09 Oct 2020
Abstract
The nutrient budget, the difference between the nutrient output via stream and input via precipitation, can provide insights into how environmental processes affect forested ecosystem biogeochemistry. In this study, field measurements of the nutrient budgets—including Na+, Cl, K+ [...] Read more.
The nutrient budget, the difference between the nutrient output via stream and input via precipitation, can provide insights into how environmental processes affect forested ecosystem biogeochemistry. In this study, field measurements of the nutrient budgets—including Na+, Cl, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3, and SO42−—of 19 sites were conducted in Feitsui Reservoir Watershed (FRW) of northeastern Taiwan. A series of power-law regressions were developed to establish the relationship of the nutrient budget to the discharge, nutrient input, agricultural land cover, and slope. The result show that the weekly nutrient budget is significantly affected by agricultural land and input via precipitation (R2 of regression models ≥ 0.90), yet the relationship varies among different nutrient elements. The agricultural land cover is the major factor, while the input via precipitation plays a relatively minor role in the budget of Cl, Mg2+, Ca2+, and SO42−. These nutrients could be provisioned abundantly from the system, and thus the input via precipitation is not the predominant controlling factor. By contrast, the Na+ and K+ inputs via precipitation are indispensable for accurately estimating the riverine exports. Because weathering is a limited source of K+, the roles of agricultural activities and input via precipitation are likely decisive for transport. Besides, the NO3 budget reveals a strong interplay between the atmospheric input and agricultural land, as expected. Because the nutrient budget model of NO3 is strongly improved, the R2 changes from 0.34 to 0.99 when a larger coefficient in exponent term (10.2) for agricultural land cover (showing that NO3 export is strongly hydrologically controlled) and precipitation input are included. Our analysis is based on one year of data, so extrapolating the result to a long-term period should be done with caution, as there could be substantial inter-annual variation. The nutrient budget approach provides a preliminary assessment to evaluate the impacts of agriculture and atmospheric deposition on nutrient export, which can provide a precursory reference for watershed management for improving water quality and mitigating eutrophication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Impact of Typhoon on Rivers)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Sediment Yields and Stream Stability Due to Sediment-Related Disaster in Shihmen Reservoir Watershed in Taiwan
Water 2019, 11(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020332 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Accurate and reliable estimates of sediment yields from a watershed and identification of unstable stream reaches due to sediment-related disaster are crucial for watershed management, disaster prevention, and hazard mitigation purposes. In this study, we added hydrodynamic and sediment transport modules in a [...] Read more.
Accurate and reliable estimates of sediment yields from a watershed and identification of unstable stream reaches due to sediment-related disaster are crucial for watershed management, disaster prevention, and hazard mitigation purposes. In this study, we added hydrodynamic and sediment transport modules in a recently developed model to estimate sediment yields and identify the unstable stream reaches in a large-scale watershed (> 100km2). The calibrated and verified models can well reproduce the flow discharge and sediment discharge at the study site, the Shihmen Reservoir Watershed in Taiwan, during several typhoon events. For the scenario applications, the results revealed that the contribution (> 96%) of landslides on sediment supply is much more significant than compared to soil erosion (< 4%). The sediment contribution from the upstream of the hydrological station-Yufeng is approximately 36–55% of the total sediment supply for the rainfall events of 25, 50, 100, and 200 years return period. It also indicates that 22–52% of sediment still remain at foot of the slope and the streams, which become a potential source for sediment hazards in the future. Combining with the bed erosion and deposition depths, flow-induced shear stress from the SRH-2D model, and probability of slope failure within 250 m of stream reaches, the relatively stability of stream reaches can be identified. The results could provide the water resource authorities for reference to take precautionary measures in advance on the stream reaches with high-degree instability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Impact of Typhoon on Rivers)
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Open AccessArticle
Topographical Analysis of the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan Storm Surge Flooding by Combining the JMA Storm Surge Model and the FLO-2D Flood Inundation Model
Water 2019, 11(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010144 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The floods associated with the effects of an incoming tropical cyclone have an immense effect in the Philippines, especially with respect to agriculture, industry, livelihood, and public safety. Knowledge of how such storm surge flooding can affect the community is therefore of great [...] Read more.
The floods associated with the effects of an incoming tropical cyclone have an immense effect in the Philippines, especially with respect to agriculture, industry, livelihood, and public safety. Knowledge of how such storm surge flooding can affect the community is therefore of great importance. In this study, the mechanisms behind Typhoon Haiyan’s anomalous storm surge flooding in 2013, which resulted in more than 6300 casualties and 2.86 billion USD worth of damage in the Philippines, were investigated. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) storm surge model and the FLO-2D flood model were used to simulate Typhoon Haiyan’s storm surge height and the extent of inundation, respectively. The storm surge input data were obtained from JMA typhoon data, and the digital terrain models used were gathered from the airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar data. The model’s accuracy was also validated using field validation data of the extent of the observed storm surge in affected coastal areas. Topographical analysis of the inundated regions showed the effects of coastal shape, elevation, and position relative to the typhoon’s approach angle on storm surge flow depth and velocity. Storm surge maximum velocity appears to increase as the fluid flows to an increasingly elevated area. Observing fluid velocity in a coastal area with uniform storm surge discharge from all directions also showed that flow velocity tends to increase at the center. Greater flood depths were experienced in areas with lower coastal elevation and not directly located at the coast, compared to higher elevation coastal areas. Greater extents of storm surge flooding are expected in coastal areas that have a concave shape, as fluid is more likely to be dispersed when hitting a convex coast. Extents are likewise observed to be greater in coastal regions that are located perpendicular to the direction of the typhoon. The research also validated the option of using a combination of typhoon and flood models to simulate the inundation flooding caused by extreme weather events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Impact of Typhoon on Rivers)
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