Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 1868

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Interests: water

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With continuous population growth and the rapid development of industry and agriculture, the demand for groundwater is increasing day by day. In recent years, studies on simulation of seepage and solute transport have mainly involved hydraulic engineering, petroleum engineering, mining engineering, deep storage of nuclear waste, tunnel engineering, etc. Some environmental problems closely related to human life, such as seawater intrusion, oil pipeline leakage, chemical plant leakage, etc., are strongly tied to groundwater flow and contaminant migration. Therefore, it is very important to study the transportation of groundwater flow and solutes via experimental and numerical simulation. The research results can provide scientific basis for management and decision-making departments.

The objective of this Special Issue is to discuss and analyze the groundwater flow and contaminant transport patterns in porous, fractured and karst media; examine the problems of groundwater leakage, water resource evaluation, foundation pit dewatering, contaminant leakage, and the remediation of groundwater pollution; and to provide new theories, experiments, methods and techniques to solve these problems.

Prof. Dr. Yong Huang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • hydrogeology
  • groundwater modelling
  • experimental and numerical simulation
  • solute transport
  • inversion of hydrogeological parameters
  • evaluation of groundwater resources
  • groundwater remediation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 5233 KiB  
Article
Salinity Intrusion Modeling Using Boundary Conditions on a Laboratory Setup: Experimental Analysis and CFD Simulations
by Dayana Carolina Chalá, Claudia Castro-Faccetti, Edgar Quiñones-Bolaños and Mehrab Mehrvar
Water 2024, 16(14), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16141970 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Salinity intrusion is one of the most pressing threats to unconfined coastal aquifers, and its simulation is of great importance for groundwater research and management. This study compared the performances of two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software applications, ANSYS Fluent 2022 R2 and [...] Read more.
Salinity intrusion is one of the most pressing threats to unconfined coastal aquifers, and its simulation is of great importance for groundwater research and management. This study compared the performances of two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software applications, ANSYS Fluent 2022 R2 and COMSOL Multiphysics 5.6, in simulating the transport of saltwater in a pilot-scale experimental setup, which was built to recreate two boundary conditions of unconfined aquifers with homogeneous stratigraphy. The experiments were performed until the saline wedge reached a quasi-steady-state condition. Sequential photographs and image analysis were required to record the movement of the saline toe and the saline wedge location. The maximum toe length was achieved under the head-controlled boundary condition, with a toe length of 1.6 m after 7 h of the experiment, and 1.65 m and 1.79 m for the COMSOL and ANSYS Fluent simulations, respectively. The findings evidence that the flux-controlled condition produced a better representation of the saline wedge than the head-controlled condition, indicating good agreement between the CFD simulations and the experimental data. Recommendations for future research include CFD simulations of real coastal aquifers and coupling fluid dynamics with other processes such as land subsidence. Full article
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16 pages, 3027 KiB  
Article
Hydraulic Travel Time Diagnosis Using Recovery Data from Short-Term Pumping Tests for Rapid Aquifer Characterization: A Numerical Study with Monte-Carlo Simulations
by Junjie Qi, Rui Hu, Linwei Hu, Quan Liu, Xiaolan Hou and Yang Song
Water 2024, 16(12), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16121677 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 475
Abstract
In the realm of groundwater science, characterization of heterogeneous aquifers is pivotal for resolving diverse groundwater resource and engineering-related problems that require the detailed spatial distribution of hydraulic parameters. As research progresses, one hydraulic tomographical method, which is based on hydraulic travel time [...] Read more.
In the realm of groundwater science, characterization of heterogeneous aquifers is pivotal for resolving diverse groundwater resource and engineering-related problems that require the detailed spatial distribution of hydraulic parameters. As research progresses, one hydraulic tomographical method, which is based on hydraulic travel time inversion, emerges as a promising and rapid method due to its robust and efficient calculation. In the field, the acquisition of hydraulic excitation and head observation data required for inversion is less time-consuming. Data collection from a single hydraulic test (such as a pumping test) typically takes only a few minutes or even a few tens of seconds. However, the field application of this method faces challenges. Hydraulic travel time is typically generated in the early stages of hydrogeological tests (e.g., early drawdown of a pumping test), yet accurate data may not be readily available because of the noise signals from test equipment, which can contaminate travel time signals, leading to inaccurate inversion results. A potential solution lies in utilizing the smooth head observation during the recovery period after the pump is turned off, which yields more accurate travel times for inversion calculations. In this paper, the mathematical development suggests that the travel time of the recovery phase aligns with that of the pumping phase when pumping reaches a steady or quasi-steady state. Subsequently, by employing Monte-Carlo simulations, 1200 realizations of two-dimensional heterogeneous confined aquifer models were generated for simulating pumping tests with different pumping durations. The calculated head data were then utilized to compute the travel time derived from drawdown data (t) and recovery data (t′), respectively. Comparisons showed that t is equal to t′ when drawdown reaches a steady or quasi-steady state. Conversely, when the pump is turned off before reaching a quasi-steady state, t differs from t′. However, results also indicate the fact that a decent hydraulic travel time diagnosis can be obtained, especially for the cases when travel times are smaller than 15 s. Given the statistical results of Monte-Carlo simulations, as well as experience during pumping tests in the field with different scenarios, using the recovery data from 60 s of pumping duration, or extended pumping durations of 100 s or 200 s as a more conservative alternative, can replace the aquifer characterization based on drawdown data. The new inversion strategy not only has less data uncertainty and equivalent inversion accuracy, but also can greatly enhance the repeatability of field tests and reduce the environmental impact of long-term pumping tests. Full article
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14 pages, 2777 KiB  
Article
Application of the Tracer Test in a Hydrogeological Survey for a Pumped Storage Power Station
by Wanlin Chen, Jie Zhang, Liqiang Chen, Kehan Miao, Xiaosong Dong and Yong Huang
Water 2024, 16(8), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16081100 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 711
Abstract
In areas with complex hydrogeological conditions, the tracer test method is often used as an effective means in hydrogeological surveys. According to the results of tracer tests, hydrogeological parameters, including hydraulic gradient and permeability coefficient, fracture network leakage passages and their scale, and [...] Read more.
In areas with complex hydrogeological conditions, the tracer test method is often used as an effective means in hydrogeological surveys. According to the results of tracer tests, hydrogeological parameters, including hydraulic gradient and permeability coefficient, fracture network leakage passages and their scale, and groundwater flow rate and direction can be quantitatively determined. This paper takes the upper reservoir of Yongxin Pumped Storage Power Station in Jiangxi Province as the research object, and focuses on the complex hydrogeological conditions of the upper reservoir. Three sets of tracer tests and multiple sets of single-hole flow rate and direction tests were conducted on the left and right banks of the reservoir and near surface gullies. The results showed that ZKS18 received tracers in all three tests, which indicates a close hydraulic connection between ZKS18 and the left bank, right bank, and surface gullies within the reservoir. Based on the single or multiple peak values of the tracer, it was determined that there are 1–6 leakage passages in the fractured rocks, with leakage passage sizes of 0.1–0.4 mm. According to the single-hole flow rate and flow direction tests, a self-developed instrument was used to determine the groundwater flow rate and flow direction at different depths in the test holes, which yielded results that were basically consistent with the results of the three-hole method. These results provide a basis for the use of tracer tests in hydrogeological surveys for water conservancy and hydropower engineering, and anti-seepage design of upper reservoirs. Full article
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