Wastewater Treatment: Methods, Techniques and Processes

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2024) | Viewed by 12297

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Córdoba, Cordoba, Spain
Interests: wastewater treatment; water quality; sludge treatment; waste management; odour emissions; environmental pollution; environmental impact assessment.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The progressive increase in population, industrialization and consumerism are the main factors leading to the enhancement of wastewater generation in recent years, which requires integrated management to protect public health and the environment. The adequate management and treatment of wastewater is a major issue in terms of sustainability, and it is necessary to solve the environmental, economic, social and sanitary problems.

Wastewater treatment refers to the physical, chemical, and biological processes used to remove pollutants from wastewater before discharging it to receiving waters. The processes commonly used in wastewater treatment include phase separation, the use of chemicals, aerobic and anaerobic processes, or even polishing. Likewise, the main by-product generated during wastewater treatment is sludge, which also needs to be properly treated.

This Special Issue of Water will present original research and review articles on the novel methods, techniques and processes related to wastewater treatment, including, but not limited to, advanced wastewater treatment technologies, the development of new materials for pollutant removal, treatment processes for wastewaters (municipal, agricultural, industrial), odour-control techniques in wastewater treatment plants, and resource recovery methods and waste management from wastewater. Manuscripts should consider innovative and integrated research on the physical, chemical and biological technologies applied to wastewater.

Dr. Manuel Toledo Padrón
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wastewater treatment
  • physicochemical treatment
  • biological treatment
  • odour control
  • waste management
  • new materials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 680 KiB  
Article
Using Bacteriophages to Treat Resilient Bacteria Found in Produced Water
by Ramon Sanchez-Rosario, Jesus Garcia, Vivian Rodriguez, Kevin A. Schug, Zacariah L. Hildenbrand and Ricardo A. Bernal
Water 2024, 16(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16060797 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2756
Abstract
Numerous treatment modalities have been employed over the years to eradicate bacterial communities in industrial wastewater. Oxidizing agents and chemical additives, such as ozone, permanganate, glutaraldehyde, and chlorine, are effective in treating microbial contaminants that are typically found in domestic wastewater. However, the [...] Read more.
Numerous treatment modalities have been employed over the years to eradicate bacterial communities in industrial wastewater. Oxidizing agents and chemical additives, such as ozone, permanganate, glutaraldehyde, and chlorine, are effective in treating microbial contaminants that are typically found in domestic wastewater. However, the chemical complexity of water produced from fracking requires novel approaches, because the microbes have developed mechanisms to overcome typical disinfectants. In this work, we test the effectiveness of bacteriophages for the eradication of two model bacteria from produced water: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium. These bacteria were grown in low salinity produced water and exposed to their corresponding phage. Overall, the total inactivation of the P. aeruginosa population was achieved, as well as the inactivation of B. megaterium. These promising results provide a potentially useful tool for bacterial elimination in overall PW treatment, at an industrial scale. Particularly, since phage treatment is a rapid and cost-effective alternative. Moreover, these results fall within the objectives proposed as part of the sustainable development goals adopted worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Methods, Techniques and Processes)
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18 pages, 4665 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Selected Operating Process Variables for a Bioflocculant Supported Column Flotation System
by Melody R. Mukandi, Moses Basitere, Seteno K. O. Ntwampe, Mahomet Njoya, Boredi S. Chidi, Cynthia Dlangamandla and Ncumisa Mpongwana
Water 2024, 16(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020329 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
The poultry industry generates significant volumes of slaughterhouse wastewater, laden with numerous pollutants, thus requiring pretreatment prior to discharge. However, new technologies must be used to re-engineer the existing wastewater treatment equipment and incorporate new designs to improve the treatment processes or system [...] Read more.
The poultry industry generates significant volumes of slaughterhouse wastewater, laden with numerous pollutants, thus requiring pretreatment prior to discharge. However, new technologies must be used to re-engineer the existing wastewater treatment equipment and incorporate new designs to improve the treatment processes or system performance. In this study, three variables, i.e., diffuser design, bioflocculant form, and flow rate, were evaluated to determine their effect on the performance of a bioflocculant-supported column flotation (BioCF) system. It was found that bioflocculants influenced diffuser performance with limited impact when the feed flow rate was varied, i.e., 3D-printed air diffusers and cell-free flocculants imparted high BioCF performance when compared to moulded diffusers and cell-bound flocculants. Notably, the combination of 3D-printed air diffusers and cell-free flocculants resulted in relatively high pollutant removal (81.23% COD, 94.44% TSS, 97.77% protein, and 90.38% turbidity reduction). The study lays a foundation for exploring 3D-printed air diffusers, a relatively new technology in conjunction with microbial flocculants usage that are regarded as eco-friendly for application in industry to enhance the performance of column flotation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Methods, Techniques and Processes)
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20 pages, 4438 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Optimization of a Green Process for Olive Mill Wastewater Treatment
by Fatma Fakhfakh, Sahar Raissi, Karim Kriaa, Chemseddine Maatki, Lioua Kolsi and Bilel Hadrich
Water 2024, 16(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020327 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment process is modeled and optimized through new design of experiments (DOE). The first step of the process is coagulation–flocculation using three coagulants (modeled with the mixture design) followed by photo-degradation (modelled with the full factorial design). Based [...] Read more.
The olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment process is modeled and optimized through new design of experiments (DOE). The first step of the process is coagulation–flocculation using three coagulants (modeled with the mixture design) followed by photo-degradation (modelled with the full factorial design). Based on this methodology, we successfully established a direct correlation between the system’s composition during the coagulation–flocculation step and the conditions of the photo-catalytic degradation step. Three coagulants are used in this study, Fe3+ solution, lime, and cactus juice, and two parameters are considered for the photo-degradation conditions: dilution and catalyst mass. Utilizing a sophisticated quadratic model, the analysis of the two observed responses reveals the ideal parameters for achieving maximum efficiency in coagulation–flocculation and photo-degradation processes. This is attained using a quasi-equal mixture of limewater and cactus juice, exclusively. To achieve an optimal photo-catalytic degradation, it is essential to maintain a minimal dilution rate while employing an elevated concentration of TiO2. It was found that the experimental tests validations were in good concordance with the mathematical predictions (a decolorization of 92.57 ± 0.90% and an organic degradation of 96.19 ± 0.97%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Methods, Techniques and Processes)
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25 pages, 5380 KiB  
Article
Phytonanofabrication of Copper Oxide from Albizia saman and Its Potential as an Antimicrobial Agent and Remediation of Congo Red Dye from Wastewater
by Nisha Choudhary, Jaimina Chaudhari, Vidhi Mochi, Pritee Patel, Daoud Ali, Saud Alarifi, Dipak Kumar Sahoo, Ashish Patel and Virendra Kumar Yadav
Water 2023, 15(21), 3787; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213787 - 29 Oct 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Metal nanoparticle fabrication through plant-based green methods is considered the gold standard among the various synthesis techniques owing to its simplicity, eco-friendliness, ease of use, and the huge diversity of plant species. Copper nanoparticles (CuONPs) have proven their potential in the fields of [...] Read more.
Metal nanoparticle fabrication through plant-based green methods is considered the gold standard among the various synthesis techniques owing to its simplicity, eco-friendliness, ease of use, and the huge diversity of plant species. Copper nanoparticles (CuONPs) have proven their potential in the fields of medicine, agriculture, pharmaceutics, and catalysis, and are being synthesized using various physicochemical and biological methods. Here, the authors have reported on the first-ever use of Albizia saman leaf extract for the development of CuONPs. Phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extracts of the plant exhibited the presence of phenols (32.31%), tannins (12.27%), and flavonoids (16.72%). The phytonutrients existing in leaf extract successfully reduced the copper salt in the CuONPs. A detailed investigation of the synthesized CuONPs was performed using advanced instruments. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited an absorbance peak at 290 nm, while the X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) revealed that the average crystallite size was about 29.86 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that the average hydrodynamic size of the CuONPs was 72.3 nm in diameter, while its zeta potential was −0.49, with a negative polarity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the major bands in the region of 400 to 1000 cm−1, suggesting the formation of CuONPs, while the band in the region of 1100 to 2600 cm−1 shows the association of plant molecules with the phytonanofabricated CuO particles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed the spherical shape of the CuONPs, whose size was about 20–50 nm. The phytonanofabricated CuO exhibited antibacterial activity by forming a zone of inhibition (ZOI) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The removal efficiency of the CuONPs was 33.33% for Congo Red dye. The removal efficiency of the phytonanofabricated CuO for CR dye was reduced to 16% after the 4th cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Methods, Techniques and Processes)
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18 pages, 3809 KiB  
Article
Heavy Metals Removal from Domestic Sewage in Batch Mesocosm Constructed Wetlands using Tropical Wetland Plants
by Shin Ying Ang, Hui Weng Goh, Bashirah Mohd Fazli, Hazzeman Haris, Nor Ariza Azizan, Nor Azazi Zakaria and Zubaidi Johar
Water 2023, 15(4), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040797 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3320
Abstract
Constructed wetlands are an affordable and reliable green alternative to conventional mechanical systems for treating domestic sewage. This study investigates the potential of 14 tropical wetland plant species for removing heavy metals from domestic sewage through the bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF), [...] Read more.
Constructed wetlands are an affordable and reliable green alternative to conventional mechanical systems for treating domestic sewage. This study investigates the potential of 14 tropical wetland plant species for removing heavy metals from domestic sewage through the bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF), enrichment factor (EF), and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) using batch mesocosm studies. Plants with BCF > 1 and TF > 1 are classified as phytoextractors, while species with BCF > 1 and TF < 1 are phytostabilisers. The results indicate that 11 out of 14 species are magnesium phytostabilisers, 10 are calcium phytoextractors, and no plant species demonstrate ferrum phytoextraction properties. As for manganese phytoremediation, only three species depicted phytoextraction and phytostabilisation properties. The enrichment factor (EF) for all of the studied metals with ferum as a reference metal in all of the soil samples decreased after the phytoremediation of domestic sewage experiments, indicating depletion to mineral enrichment (EF < 2). All of the soil samples are generally classified as uncontaminated based on Igeo indices. Based on the factors and indices, it is suggested that the plants may have facilitated heavy metal removal from domestic sewage through uptake into the plant tissues from the roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Methods, Techniques and Processes)
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Review

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27 pages, 1748 KiB  
Review
The Grey–Taguchi Method, a Statistical Tool to Optimize the Photo-Fenton Process: A Review
by Martín Barragán-Trinidad, Oscar Guadarrama-Pérez, Rosa Angélica Guillén-Garcés, Victoria Bustos-Terrones, Luis Gerardo Trevino-Quintanilla and Gabriela Moeller-Chávez
Water 2023, 15(15), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152685 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Currently there is a growing concern about the presence of emerging contaminants (EC) in water bodies and their potential ecotoxicological effects. Pharmaceuticals, a type of EC, are widely distributed in the environment and their main entry is through wastewater from treatment plants, since [...] Read more.
Currently there is a growing concern about the presence of emerging contaminants (EC) in water bodies and their potential ecotoxicological effects. Pharmaceuticals, a type of EC, are widely distributed in the environment and their main entry is through wastewater from treatment plants, since these systems are not designed to remove EC. In this sense, the photo-Fenton process, an advanced oxidation process, has proven to be highly efficient in degrading new potentially harmful contaminants. However, this process is affected by multiple factors, which makes it necessary to implement a methodological strategy to optimize the photo-Fenton process. Within these, the Taguchi method provides robust and low-cost solutions with the least number of experiments, providing knowledge of the contribution of each of the factors studied to the response variable. In addition to the above, the Taguchi method can be coupled to a Grey relational analysis (Grey–Taguchi method), which will allow the optimization of more than one response variable at the same time. This paper discusses the parameters that affect the photo-Fenton process and the application of designs of experiments to optimize the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Methods, Techniques and Processes)
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