Special Issue "Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional, and Global Scales"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Scott Curtis
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography, Planning & Environment, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, US
Interests: hydroclimatology; precipitation; ENSO; drought; Caribbean; South Asia; social impacts
Prof. Dr. Glenn McGregor
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography, Durham University, Durham, UK
Interests: synoptic climatology; hydroclimatology; biometeorology; climate risk management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Improving water security is a primary motivation for studies in hydroclimatology. While statistical relationships between global climate teleconnections and land water have been developed, additional research is needed to advance this field of study. Some examples include a better understanding of (i) intervening atmospheric and oceanic dynamics between climate states and water supply, (ii) relationships between climatic variability and exchanges between components of the hydrologic cycle (e.g., precipitation with stream flow and stream flow with groundwater), (iii) cascading temporal and spatial scales of hydroclimatic variability, (iv) water’s impact on climate variability and change (e.g., in the cryosphere). This Special Issue aims to provide new insights into these and other unresolved issues in hydroclimatology. Observational and modeling studies of the effects of intraseasonal (e.g., the Madden Julian Oscillation), interannual (e.g., El Nino/Southern Oscillation), and decadal (e.g., Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) climate variability on freshwater reservoirs and flows from local, regional, and global perspectives are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Scott Curtis
Prof. Dr. Glenn McGregor
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydroclimate
  • precipitation
  • streams
  • lakes
  • groundwater
  • cryosphere
  • climate variability
  • climate change

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional and Global Scales
Water 2020, 12(5), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051490 - 23 May 2020
Abstract
Hydroclimate is non-stationary and varies in often unpredictable ways on local, regional and global scales, which can lead to water insecurity. This editorial relates the advances and challenges in our understanding of the spatio-temporal relationship between climate variability and change and the components [...] Read more.
Hydroclimate is non-stationary and varies in often unpredictable ways on local, regional and global scales, which can lead to water insecurity. This editorial relates the advances and challenges in our understanding of the spatio-temporal relationship between climate variability and change and the components of the hydrologic cycle through the lens of six articles, which contributed to the Water Special Issue: Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional and Global Scales. The relationship between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and precipitation, temperature, and evapotranspiration is examined within the Indian Summer monsoon, gauge-based precipitation datasets are intercompared over Pakistan, trends in precipitation, temperature, and streamflow are investigated in Ethiopia and China, alternate configurations of hydroclimate modeling are assessed over Canada, and finally, future limitations in groundwater supply are presented for Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional, and Global Scales)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Nossana Spring (Northern Italy) under Climate Change: Projections of Future Discharge Rates and Water Availability
Water 2020, 12(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020387 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nossana represents an important pre-Alpine karst spring for drinking supply, sustaining a water distribution system serving 300,000 people. The goal of this study was to project Nossana discharges and evaluate potential supply limits for four future periods (2021–2040, 2041–2060, 2061–2080, 2081–2100). Bias-corrected Regional [...] Read more.
Nossana represents an important pre-Alpine karst spring for drinking supply, sustaining a water distribution system serving 300,000 people. The goal of this study was to project Nossana discharges and evaluate potential supply limits for four future periods (2021–2040, 2041–2060, 2061–2080, 2081–2100). Bias-corrected Regional Climate Models (RCMs), part of the EURO-CORDEX experiment and forced by three emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5), were evaluated, statistically downscaled, and used as input in a calibrated rainfall-runoff model ensemble. For each emission scenario, the calibrated model ensemble considered three RCMs and ten rainfall-runoff parameterizations. Projected ensemble mean discharges are lower than observations (3%–23%) for all RCPs, though they do not show a clear trend between the four time periods. Days characterized by discharges lower than actual water demand are projected to decrease, except for the RCP8.5 emission scenarios and the period 2081–2100. Conversely, the same consecutive days are expected to increase after 2060 for all emission scenarios. These results reflect the projected precipitation trend, characterized by longer, drier summer periods and wetter autumns in comparison to today’s climate. Also, they indicate a possible need for alternative drinking water resources. The proposed methodology was demonstrated to deliver useful quantitative information for water management in the mid- long-term period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional, and Global Scales)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydro-Meteorological Trends in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin and Possible Associations with Large-Scale Circulation
Water 2020, 12(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010144 - 02 Jan 2020
Abstract
Climate change poses potential challenges to sensitive areas, such as high-elevation regions. The Yarlung Zangbo River (YLZR) basin is located in the southeast of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It contains large amounts of snow and numerous glaciers that are vulnerable to climate change. Based [...] Read more.
Climate change poses potential challenges to sensitive areas, such as high-elevation regions. The Yarlung Zangbo River (YLZR) basin is located in the southeast of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It contains large amounts of snow and numerous glaciers that are vulnerable to climate change. Based on daily observational data at 17 meteorological stations in and around the YLZR basin during 1957–2015, the variability of precipitation, air temperature, and streamflow were analyzed. The nonparametric Mann–Kendall test, Sen’s slope estimate method, cross wavelet transform (XWT), and wavelet coherence (WTC) were used to identify the annual seasonal trends. the abrupt changes of precipitation and air temperature, and their associations with large-scale circulation. The results showed that the YLZR basin experienced an overall rapid warming and wetting during the study period, with an average warming rate of 0.33 °C/10 a and wetting rate of 4.25 mm/10a, respectively. Abrupt change points in precipitation and air temperature occurred around the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. The abrupt change points of three hydrological stations occurred around the late 1960s and the late 1990s, respectively. The precipitation, annual average temperature, and the streamflow of the three hydrological stations were negatively correlated with the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and the multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (MEI), reaching a significant level of 0.05. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional, and Global Scales)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring an Alternative Configuration of the Hydroclimatic Modeling Chain, Based on the Notion of Asynchronous Objective Functions
Water 2019, 11(10), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102012 - 27 Sep 2019
Abstract
This study explores an alternative configuration of the hydroclimatic modeling chain around the notion of asynchronous objective-function (AOF). AOFs are calibration criteria purposely ignoring the correlation between observed and simulated variables. Within the suggested alternative configuration, the hydrologic model is being forced and [...] Read more.
This study explores an alternative configuration of the hydroclimatic modeling chain around the notion of asynchronous objective-function (AOF). AOFs are calibration criteria purposely ignoring the correlation between observed and simulated variables. Within the suggested alternative configuration, the hydrologic model is being forced and calibrated with bias corrected climate variables over the reference period instead of historical meteorological observations. Consequently, the alternative configuration circumvent the redundant usage of climate observation operated within conventional configurations for statistical post-processing of simulated climate variables and calibration of the hydrologic model. AOFs optimize statistical properties of hydroclimatic projections, preserving the sequence of events imbedded within the forcing climate model. Both conventional and alternative configurations of the hydroclimatic modeling chain are implemented over a mid-size nivo-pluvial catchment located in the Saint-Lawrence Valley, Canada. The WaSiM-ETH hydrological model is forced with a bias-corrected member of the Canadian Regional Climate Model Large Ensemble (CRCM5-LE). Five AOFs are designed and compared to the common Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE) metric. Forced with observations, AOFs tend to provide a hydrologic response comparable to KGE during the nival season and moderately degraded during the pluvial season. Using AOFs, the alternative configuration of the hydroclimatic modeling chain provides more coherent hydrologic projections relative to a conventional configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional, and Global Scales)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydro-Meteorological Trends in the Upper Omo-Ghibe River Basin, Ethiopia
Water 2019, 11(9), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091951 - 19 Sep 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to assess trends of hydro-meteorological variables in the Upper Omo-Ghibe river basin, Ethiopia. Data records from eleven rainfall, eight air temperature, and five streamflow stations between 1981 to 2008 were investigated. The trends and change points were evaluated for different [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess trends of hydro-meteorological variables in the Upper Omo-Ghibe river basin, Ethiopia. Data records from eleven rainfall, eight air temperature, and five streamflow stations between 1981 to 2008 were investigated. The trends and change points were evaluated for different periods of time depending on data availability. Mann-Kendall and Pettit tests were used to identify trends and change points at a 5% significance level. The tests were applied to mean annual, monthly and seasonal time scales. Rainfall exhibited statistically decreasing trends at a mean annual time scale, while seasonal rainfall depicted heterogeneous results in both directions. For the majority of the stations, air temperature showed statistically significant increasing trends. The magnitude of change in temperature for mean annual, wet and dry season has increased about 0.48, 0.46, and 0.61 °C per decade for Jimma station. The Pettit test revealed that the late 1980s and 1990s were the change points. There is generally a decreasing trend in streamflow. The decline in annual rainfall and rise in temperature affected the streamflow negatively. Overall, the results indicate that trend sand change point times varied considerably across the stations and catchments. The identified significant trends can help to support planning decisions for water management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional, and Global Scales)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Gridded Precipitation Datasets over Arid Regions of Pakistan
Water 2019, 11(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020210 - 26 Jan 2019
Cited by 16
Abstract
The rough topography, harsh climate, and sparse monitoring stations have limited hydro-climatological studies in arid regions of Pakistan. Gauge-based gridded precipitation datasets provide an opportunity to assess the climate where stations are sparsely located. Though, the reliability of these datasets heavily depends on [...] Read more.
The rough topography, harsh climate, and sparse monitoring stations have limited hydro-climatological studies in arid regions of Pakistan. Gauge-based gridded precipitation datasets provide an opportunity to assess the climate where stations are sparsely located. Though, the reliability of these datasets heavily depends on their ability to replicate the observed temporal variability and distribution patterns. Conventional correlation or error analyses are often not enough to justify the variability and distribution of precipitation. In the present study, mean bias error, mean absolute error, modified index of agreement, and Anderson–Darling test have been used to evaluate the performance of four widely used gauge-based gridded precipitation data products, namely, Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), Climatic Research Unit (CRU); Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation (APHRODITE), Center for Climatic Research—University of Delaware (UDel) at stations located in semi-arid, arid, and hyper-arid regions in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. The result revealed that the performance of different products varies with climate. However, GPCC precipitation data was found to perform much better in all climatic regions in terms of most of the statistical assessments conducted. As the temporal variability and distribution of precipitation are very important in many hydrological and climatic applications, it can be expected that the methods used in this study can be useful for the better assessment of gauge-based data for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional, and Global Scales)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of ENSO on Temperature, Precipitation, and Potential Evapotranspiration of North India’s Monsoon: An Analysis of Trend and Entropy
Water 2019, 11(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020189 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the north Indian temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration (PET) change patterns were evaluated during the monsoon season across the last century. Trends and shifts in 146 districts were assessed using nonparametric statistical tests. To [...] Read more.
The influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the north Indian temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration (PET) change patterns were evaluated during the monsoon season across the last century. Trends and shifts in 146 districts were assessed using nonparametric statistical tests. To quantify their temporal variation, the concept of apportionment entropy was applied to both the annual and seasonal scales. Results suggest that the El Niño years played a greater role in causing hydro-climatological changes compared to the La Niña or neutral years. El Niño was more influential in causing shifts compared to trends. For certain districts, a phase change in ENSO reversed the trend/shift direction. The century-wide analysis suggested that the vast majority of the districts experienced significant decreasing trends/shifts in temperature and PET. However, precipitation experienced both increasing and decreasing trends/shifts based on the location of the districts. Entropy results suggested a lower apportionment of precipitation compared to the other variables, indicating an intermittent deviation of precipitation pattern from the generic trend. The findings may help understand the effects of ENSO on the hydro-climatological variables during the monsoon season. Practitioners may find the results useful as monsoon is the most important season for India causing climate extremes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimatic Variability at Local, Regional, and Global Scales)
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