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Analysis of Spatiotemporal Groundwater-Storage Variations in China from GRACE

Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
School of Earth Sciences and Resources, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China
Beijing Engineering Consulting Co., Ltd., Beijing 100025, China
Center for Satellite Application on Ecology and Environment, Ministry of Ecology and Environmental, Beijing 100094, China
Chinese Academy of Sciences University, Beijing 100049, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Adam Milewski
Water 2021, 13(17), 2378;
Received: 26 June 2021 / Revised: 11 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 30 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation)
In China, where some regions are over-reliant on groundwater, groundwater consumption is faster than replenishment, which results in a continuous decrease in the groundwater level. Here, we applied spatial and temporal methods to analyze the spatiotemporal variations in groundwater in China from GRACE, GRACE-FO, and GLDAS data. From a national perspective, groundwater storage showed a decreasing trend in northern China and an increasing trend in southern China. The results showed that the rates of groundwater depletion in North China, the Loess Plateau, and Northwest China were −10.09 ± 0.94, −10.05 ± 1.05, and –4.91 ± 0.28 mm y−1 equivalent height of water from 2003 to 2019, respectively. Furthermore, the groundwater in South China, the middle-lower Yangtze River, and the Ch-Yu region had a positive trend, with rates of 7.26 ± 1.51, 7.73 ± 1.35, and 3.61 ± 0.53 mm y−1 equivalent height of water, respectively. We also found that groundwater storage fluctuated slightly before 2016 on the Qinhai-Tibet Plateau and in Northeast China and decreased significantly after 2016. The Yun-Gui Plateau had a fluctuating trend. Investigating the spatiotemporal variation in groundwater storage in China can provide data for initiating regional ecological and environmental protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: GRACE; terrestrial water storage; groundwater; variation; China GRACE; terrestrial water storage; groundwater; variation; China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, F.; Kang, P.; Zhu, H.; Han, J.; Huang, Y. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Groundwater-Storage Variations in China from GRACE. Water 2021, 13, 2378.

AMA Style

Liu F, Kang P, Zhu H, Han J, Huang Y. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Groundwater-Storage Variations in China from GRACE. Water. 2021; 13(17):2378.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Fangfang, Ping Kang, Haitao Zhu, Jiafu Han, and Yaohuan Huang. 2021. "Analysis of Spatiotemporal Groundwater-Storage Variations in China from GRACE" Water 13, no. 17: 2378.

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