Special Issue "Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 June 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jesús M. Mercado
Website
Guest Editor
Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Puerto Pesquero s/n, 29640 Fuengirola, Málaga, Spain
Interests: coastal eutrophication, nutrient pollution, phytoplankton, ocean acidification, pelagic ecosystems, oceanography

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The eutrophication of natural water bodies is a progressive process originated by inorganic nutrient release, which produces multiple damages in aquatic ecosystems and reduces the quality of water for human consumption. In the first stage, eutrophication is manifested by increases in phytoplankton and/or opportunistic macroalga; afterwards, secondary effects such as low dissolved oxygen and increased frequency of nuisance and toxic algal blooms would be produced. In the most advanced phase, eutrophication produces anoxia and elevated fauna mortality. Experimental evidence accumulated over several decades indicates that the sensitivity of a given ecosystem to nutrient enrichment is conditioned by its physical and/or biological features (e.g., water optical properties, hydrology, bathymetry, river flow, composition of the pelagic and benthic communities). These attributes could act as filters that amplify or mitigate the impacts of nutrient pollution by modulating the nutrient-driven photoautotrophs dynamics. Providing that these features vary at different spatial and temporal scales, eutrophication assessment raises the challenge of distinguishing the nutrient pollution impact from the natural variability of the ecosystems. This Special Issue will contribute to this objective by collecting articles addressing the development and application of innovative tools for eutrophication assessment in a wide variety of ecosystems, including freshwater and coastal systems. Particularly, articles contributing to the following three topics (although not limited to these) will be welcome: (1) Identification of feasible indicators based on ecosystem components that can be used widely as early warning indicators of eutrophication. (2) Time series analysis techniques oriented to the robust discrimination of natural variability from that attributable to nutrient pollution. (3) Use of satellite information for researching spatial and temporal trends of eutrophication indicators as well as for guiding the implementation of more efficient monitoring programs (i.e., based on sampling effort optimization and the production of information embeddable at higher spatial or regional scales).

Dr. Jesús Mercado-Carmona
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • nitrate
  • phosphate
  • chlorophyll
  • satellite imagery
  • primary production
  • phytoplankton
  • zooplankton
  • pelagic trophic web
  • phytobenthos
  • eutrophication managment

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Influences on Water Quality and Abundance of Cladophora, a Shore-Fouling Green Algae, over Urban Shoreline in Lake Ontario
Water 2018, 10(11), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111569 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Urban centers border western Lake Ontario, the terminus of the Laurentian Great Lakes, impacting water quality on the shores of this oligotrophic lake. The green algae Cladophora proliferates on the shallow lakebed and fouls the shoreline, presenting an eutrophication concern. The conditions over [...] Read more.
Urban centers border western Lake Ontario, the terminus of the Laurentian Great Lakes, impacting water quality on the shores of this oligotrophic lake. The green algae Cladophora proliferates on the shallow lakebed and fouls the shoreline, presenting an eutrophication concern. The conditions over a typical urbanized shoreline were studied to assess linkages between Cladophora and area nutrient sources. The most pervasive of the mixing areas of varying extent identified using field sensor measurements was associated with the discharge of treated sewage from a Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP). Phosphorus and nitrogen were enriched at times near the WPCP diffuser and also in shallow water along the shoreline. Dissolved nutrients were also measured directly above the lakebed in close proximity to Cladophora. Dissolved phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen were higher in proximity to the WPCP diffuser at times, however, spatial patterns were not as clearly aligned with external inputs as the patterns of enrichment in the water column. Biomass distribution of Cladophora was unrelated to nutrient levels in the water column or at the lakebed. Yet, concentrations of phosphorus in Cladophora, an indicator of nutrient sufficiency, were higher near the WPCP diffuser. This disparity, while possibly an artifact of variable loss rates of biomass among locations, may in part stem from variable water clarity among areas. Abundant dreissenid mussels also potentially obscure the effects of nutrient loading on algal biomass if the sequestering of phosphorus from offshore plankton, suggested by periods of onshore circulation, approaches the extent of external loading. Further study of phosphorus flux at the lakebed is required to establish clear linkages between external nutrient loading and algal growth in order to manage the proliferation of Cladophora over urban coastline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Lake Eutrophication Responses to Multiple Scenarios of Lake Restoration: A Three-Dimensional Modeling Approach
Water 2018, 10(8), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080994 - 27 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
To improve the water quality and alleviate the eutrophication of Lake Yangchenghu, the third largest freshwater body within the Lake Taihu basin in China and an important source of drinking water, nutrient reduction strategies should be urgently addressed by decision makers, since virtually [...] Read more.
To improve the water quality and alleviate the eutrophication of Lake Yangchenghu, the third largest freshwater body within the Lake Taihu basin in China and an important source of drinking water, nutrient reduction strategies should be urgently addressed by decision makers, since virtually no improvement of water quality has taken place since the mid-1990s. Due to the lack of sufficient observation data and simulation results, a vertically compressed three-dimensional numerical model, the EcoTaihu model, was used to study the impact of three restoration measures on the water quality—namely, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and biomass of phytoplankton (BP)—of Lake Yangchenghu: (i) total nutrient reduction, (ii) intensification of flushing by water transfer, and (iii) spatial adjustment of inflow channels. In particular, the spatial effects of the three restoration measures on the water quality were investigated. The results showed that the EcoTaihu model is applicable to other shallow lakes in China. The water quality responses to the different restoration scenarios showed significant spatio-temporal differences. The reduction of nutrient loads from inflows appeared to be the most effective measure for controlling the eutrophication and algal blooms in Lake Yangchenghu. The effectiveness of water transfer on the improvement of water quality for TN and TP was more influenced by the differences of nutrient concentrations between the transferred water and lake water, rather than flow rate, since no proportionate increase of improvement was observable in the case of larger transferred rates (60 m3 s−1). The spatial narrowing of inflowing rivers in the southwestern lake could preferentially improve the water quality in the southern bay of the western lake, but would also result in a deterioration trend of water quality in the total lake and drinking water abstraction areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Characteristics of Organic Matter and Nutrients Released from Sediments into Agricultural Reservoirs
Water 2018, 10(8), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080980 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Most agricultural reservoirs in Korea are more than 50 years old, have low water depth and storage capacity, and have experienced contaminant deposition for decades. Contaminated sedimentation on the reservoir bottom can cause water pollution and eutrophication. Consequently, intervention is required to remove [...] Read more.
Most agricultural reservoirs in Korea are more than 50 years old, have low water depth and storage capacity, and have experienced contaminant deposition for decades. Contaminated sedimentation on the reservoir bottom can cause water pollution and eutrophication. Consequently, intervention is required to remove and manage the sediments. We analyzed the release characteristics of organic matter and nutrients from sediments of four reservoirs to predict the pollution caused by sediment release and investigated their effects on water quality. Additionally, the effects of sediment release were compared with those of influent pollutant loads to the reservoirs. We employed the core culture method to determine the release concentrations changes under oxic, anoxic, and control conditions in the collected sediments. In all the studied reservoirs, the release concentrations of nitrate nitrogen increased under oxic conditions and those of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, and phosphate phosphorus increased under anoxic conditions. The water quality was affected by sediment release from the reservoir bottom. The release fluxes (internal sources) of total nitrogen and total phosphorous for the influent pollutant loads (external source) were 2.3–43.7% and 24.9–48.1%, respectively, for each reservoir. Therefore, optimal pollution control and management strategies will depend on the characteristics of individual reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Time Variability Patterns of Eutrophication Indicators in the Bay of Algeciras (South Spain)
Water 2018, 10(7), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070938 - 14 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the Bay of Algeciras (BA), intensive urban and industrial activityis underway, which is potentially responsible for the release of significant quantities of nutrients. However, the assessment of the impact of these discharges is complex. Nutrient concentration in the surface layer is per [...] Read more.
In the Bay of Algeciras (BA), intensive urban and industrial activityis underway, which is potentially responsible for the release of significant quantities of nutrients. However, the assessment of the impact of these discharges is complex. Nutrient concentration in the surface layer is per se strongly variable due to the variability associated with the upwelling of nutrient-enriched deep Mediterranean water (MW), which in turn is regulated by atmospheric forcing. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of changes in the upwelling intensity on the load of nitrate and phosphate in the BA and to appraise their impact on chlorophyll a variability. Based on this analysis, the possible influence of the nutrients released from land-based sources is indirectly inferred. Data and samples collected during nine research cruises carried out in different seasonal cycle periods between 2010 and 2015 in the BA were analysed. The vertical variation of temperature and salinity indicates that the MW upwelling was favoured in spring, as occurred in other coastal areas of the northern Alboran Sea. However, principal component analysis conducted on physical and chemical data reveals that shifts in nutrients and chlorophyll a in the euphotic layer are poorly explained by changes in the upwelling intensity. Furthermore, during some of these research surveys (particularly in summer), chlorophyll a concentrations were higher in the BA as compared to a nearby coastal area also affected by MW upwelling. Scarce information about land-based pollution sources precludes quantitative analysis of the impact of nutrient loads on water quality; however, the available data suggest that the main source of allochthanous inorganic nitrogen over the period 2010–2015 in the BA was nitrate. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the high concentrations of nitrate and chlorophyll a in BA in summer are a consequence of those discharges. Our study highlights the need of more exhaustive inventories of sewage and river discharges to adequately rate their impact in the BA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Control to Prevent the Occurrence of Cyanobacterial Blooms in a Eutrophic Lake in Southern Sweden, Used for Drinking Water Supply
Water 2018, 10(7), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070919 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 6Correction
Abstract
Control of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), plays a significant role in preventing cyanobacterial blooms (harmful algal blooms (HABs)). This study aims at evaluating changes in the risk of the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and advancing the understanding of how nitrogen [...] Read more.
Control of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), plays a significant role in preventing cyanobacterial blooms (harmful algal blooms (HABs)). This study aims at evaluating changes in the risk of the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and advancing the understanding of how nitrogen and phosphorus affect the growth of cyanobacteria in a eutrophic lake, Lake Vombsjön, in southern Sweden. Our results show that TP (total phosphorus) has stronger positive correlation with cyanobacteria biomass than DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus); DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) has a stronger negative correlation with cyanobacteria biomass than TN (total nitrogen); and DIN:TP has a stronger negative correlation with cyanobacteria biomass than TN:TP. The highest amount of cyanobacteria biomass, above WHO (World Health Organization) Alert Level 2 (10 mm3/L) for drinking water correspond to the DIP/TP ratio below 10. To diminish the growth of cyanobacteria in Lake Vombsjön, TP and DIN control should be in focus, preferably a TP below 20 µg/L, and the DIN:TP ratio should be maintained at a level of at least above 10, but preferably above 50, thereby reducing the likelihood for a nitrogen limiting situation which may favor cyanobacteria dominating blooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of the Interaction between Phosphorus and Sediment Based on the Modified Langmuir Equation
Water 2018, 10(7), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070840 - 25 Jun 2018
Abstract
Phosphorus is the primary factor that limits eutrophication of surface waters in aquatic environments. Sediment particles have a strong affinity to phosphorus due to the high specific surface areas and surface active sites. In this paper, a numerical model containing hydrodynamics, sediment, and [...] Read more.
Phosphorus is the primary factor that limits eutrophication of surface waters in aquatic environments. Sediment particles have a strong affinity to phosphorus due to the high specific surface areas and surface active sites. In this paper, a numerical model containing hydrodynamics, sediment, and phosphorus module based on improved Langmuir equation is established, where the processes of adsorption and desorption are considered. Through the statistical analysis of the physical experiment data, the fitting formulas of two important parameters in the Langmuir equation are obtained, which are the adsorption coefficient, ka, and the ratio k between the adsorption coefficient and the desorption coefficient. In order to simulate the experimental flume and get a constant and uniform water flow, a periodical numerical flume is built by adding a streamwise body force, Fx. The adsorbed phosphorus by sediment and the dissolved phosphorus in the water are separately added into the Advection Diffusion equation as a source term to simulate the interaction between them. The result of the numerical model turns out to be well matched with that of the physical experiment and can thus provide the basis for further analysis. With the application of the numerical model to some new and relative cases, the conclusion will be drawn through an afterwards analysis. The concentration of dissolved phosphorus proves to be unevenly distributed along the depth and the maximum value approximately appears in the 3/4 water depth because both the high velocity in the top layer and the high turbulence intensity in the bottom layer can promote sediment adsorption on phosphorus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Confluence in Shaping Water Quality Parameters on Example of the Flow-Through Lake Bikcze (Eastern Poland)
Water 2018, 10(6), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060679 - 24 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The role of confluence (flowability) in shaping the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and pH was determined using a model approach. The calculations considered both horizontal and vertical variability of parameters. There was a general tendency for the pH and oxygen [...] Read more.
The role of confluence (flowability) in shaping the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and pH was determined using a model approach. The calculations considered both horizontal and vertical variability of parameters. There was a general tendency for the pH and oxygen to increase along the transect connecting the place of surface water inlet, deepest point of the lake basin and the place of water outlet, and the reverse tendency for chlorophyll. The average gradient for particulate radius was calculated as arithmetic mean value of six partial gradients (corresponding to individual depths, every 0.5 m). Values of average gradients indicated high dynamics of DO and pH concentration changes as well as low chlorophyll-a variability. A slight inclination of the final resultant vector gradients of DO and pH from the surface water inlet, deepest point of the lake basin and the place of water outlet transect indicated the dominant role of confluence in these parameters variability (values amounted to 6.08 mg·km−1 and 3.34 pH units·km−1, respectively). The value of the chlorophyll-a gradient vector (1.86 µg·km−1) indicated a slight differentiation of the parameter in the basin, independent of the hydrological conditions. The concentration of chl-a in the polymictic Lake Bikcze resulted from the effect of the limnic conditions; the flowability of the lake was just one of many factors affecting the variability of the parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Case Study on Water Quality Improvement in Xihu Lake through Diversion and Water Distribution
Water 2018, 10(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030333 - 16 Mar 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Eutrophication in lakes and reservoirs is a serious environmental problem that has damaged ecosystem health worldwide. Water diversion is one of the most popular methods for improving the water quality in shallow lakes, as it dilutes pollutants in and diverts them out of [...] Read more.
Eutrophication in lakes and reservoirs is a serious environmental problem that has damaged ecosystem health worldwide. Water diversion is one of the most popular methods for improving the water quality in shallow lakes, as it dilutes pollutants in and diverts them out of the lake. However, simple diversion without rational water distribution cannot significantly enhance water exchange in the entire lake because dead water zones always exist. This paper illustrates a case study on water quality improvement in Xihu Lake by diversion and water distribution. Based on theoretical calculation, the diversion water discharge was determined and rationally distributed into four different locations. According to the field observations after the implementation of the diversion and water distribution project, the average velocity over the dead water zones increased approximately 50 times over that of prior to the project. The average water exchange period reduced from 68 days to 22.5 days. The average turbidity was 8.8% and 12.4% lower than before after two and four months of diversion, respectively. The maximum turbidity reduced from the original 27.5 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit) to 20.1 NTU after two months of diversion, then to 16.1 NTU after four months of diversion. It shows that this diversion and rational water distribution eliminates most of the dead water zones and achieves a favorable flow field, thus reducing the turbidity and increasing water transparency, which is conducive to the improvement of water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Eutrophication Potential of a Freshwater Lake by Relating Its Bioproductivity and Biodiversity: A Case Study of Lake Wilson on Central Oahu, Hawaii
Water 2018, 10(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030296 - 09 Mar 2018
Abstract
Algal bloom in a freshwater lake is a rapid increase of aquatic plants, which disrupts the ecological balance and its potential for beneficial uses. This problem has been managed by relating the trophic levels of a lake with nutrient loading. This traditional management [...] Read more.
Algal bloom in a freshwater lake is a rapid increase of aquatic plants, which disrupts the ecological balance and its potential for beneficial uses. This problem has been managed by relating the trophic levels of a lake with nutrient loading. This traditional management approach is less than satisfactory as it neglects considering the intricate relationship between nutrient loading and the algal community. As a result, it often fails to detect an imminent algal bloom and fails to formulate and implement timely remedial measures. The advancement of modern molecular biosciences has provided an opportunity to improve this traditional approach. In this study, field and laboratory experiments on lake bioproductivity and biodiversity were conducted in Lake Wilson on central Oahu, Hawaii. Bioproductivity or algal productivity was evaluated in terms of the rate of chlorophyll growth in the lake water, and the biodiversity or genetic biodiversity was evaluated by using the method of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the algae species and the Shannon index. Research results indicated that eukaryote communities in Lake Wilson were more diverse under the mesotrophic state of algal productivity than those under the oligotrophic and eutrophic states. Therefore, the reduction of the biodiversity of a mesotrophic lake can be used in water quality management as a warning sign of an imminent algal bloom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
The Synergic Characteristics of Surface Water Pollution and Sediment Pollution with Heavy Metals in the Haihe River Basin, Northern China
Water 2018, 10(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010073 - 15 Jan 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Aquatic environmental deterioration is becoming a serious problem due to rapid urbanization and economic development, particularly in developing countries. As two important components of the aquatic environment, water quality and sediment pollution are widely considered to be concerns; however, they are considered separately [...] Read more.
Aquatic environmental deterioration is becoming a serious problem due to rapid urbanization and economic development, particularly in developing countries. As two important components of the aquatic environment, water quality and sediment pollution are widely considered to be concerns; however, they are considered separately in most cases. The relationship between water quality and sediment pollution with heavy metals has been little addressed. In this study, the Haihe River Basin (HRB), one of the most polluted areas in China, was used as a case study, and the eutrophication index (EI) and the potential ecological risk index (RI) were employed to evaluate water quality and sediment pollution of heavy metals, respectively. The results showed that generally in the HRB, the water quality was poor, while the risk of heavy metal pollution was relatively low. Surface water quality was mainly influenced by sewage discharges from human daily life, and heavy metal pollution was affected by industry structure, in that the areas with resource/energy consumption industries and high-pollution industries often have high risks of heavy metal pollution Synergic pollution from water eutrophication and sediment pollution with heavy metals was found, especially in the central areas of the HRB, and it was largely dependent on the type of human activities. In the places with intensive human activities, such as secondary industry, eutrophication occurred simultaneously with heavy metal pollution, other than in less human-affected areas. These findings are useful for planning aquatic environment protections and river ecosystem management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Li, J., et al. Nutrient Control to Prevent the Occurrence of Cyanobacterial Blooms in a Eutrophic Lake in Southern Sweden, Used for Drinking Water Supply. Water 2018, 10, 919
Water 2019, 11(6), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061172 - 05 Jun 2019
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication Management: Monitoring and Control)
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