Special Issue "Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 8599

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Michele Palermo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Interests: hydraulics; hydraulic jump; instrumentation; low-head structures; multiphase-flows; physical modeling; plunging jets; river morphology; scour processes; sediment transport
Prof. Stefano Pagliara
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universita di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Interests: hydraulics; hydraulic jump; instrumentation; low-head structures; multiphase flows; physical modeling; plunging jets; river morphology; scour processes; sediment transport

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Scour-related problems have been extensively studied in the last decades by many researchers. Nevertheless, they still represent a challenge for hydraulic engineers because of their impact on the anthropized environment. The recent advancements of knowledge on sediment transport, river dynamics, multiphase flow processes and localized scour phenomena in correspondence with hydraulic structures have provided a better understanding of the complexity of both phenomenological and theoretical aspects characterizing scour-related problems. But they have also put in evidence the necessity to further deepen such a vast topic. Therefore, this special issue aims at providing the readership with a collection of high-quality papers that can represent a contribution to fill the gap of knowledge in scour processes and/or to stimulate new research perspectives. In this regard, papers presenting new experimental works, theoretical analyses, state of the art on specific sub-themes, case studies and thought-provoking opinions are welcome.

Dr. Michele Palermo
Prof. Stefano Pagliara
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Hydraulics
  • hydraulic structures
  • multiphase-flows
  • plunging jets
  • river morphology
  • river restoration
  • scour processes
  • sediment transport

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Application of a Single Porous Basket as a Pier Scour Countermeasure
Water 2021, 13(21), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213052 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 525
Abstract
This paper presents a study on bridge pier protection with a single porous basket (SPB) in clear-water experiments. The SPB is a type of combined flow-altering countermeasure. The SPB was installed at a distance ahead of the protected pier. After a series of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study on bridge pier protection with a single porous basket (SPB) in clear-water experiments. The SPB is a type of combined flow-altering countermeasure. The SPB was installed at a distance ahead of the protected pier. After a series of tests, the results showed that appropriate installation of the SPB was able to effectively adjust the flow pattern to reduce the down-flow motion and horseshoe vortex ahead of the pier. Dominant factors for the pier protection—considered for all tests—included the distance between the basket and pier, submerged depth of the basket, basket length, pier diameter, basket diameter, hole size, porosity, and the flow approaching angle. After evaluating these parameters through laboratory tests, the results of protection were optimized. In optimal conditions, the SPB was able to provide maximum pier protection and decrease the maximum scour depth by as much as 75.53%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering)
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Article
The Phenomenological Theory of Turbulence and the Scour Evolution Downstream of Grade-Control Structures under Steady Discharges
Water 2021, 13(17), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172359 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
A more complete understanding of scour mechanisms for flows downstream of grade-control structures, including their temporal evolution, has the potential to lead to improved predicting tools for design. To date, design equations have been mostly derived empirically, i.e., by parametric modelling (at [...] Read more.
A more complete understanding of scour mechanisms for flows downstream of grade-control structures, including their temporal evolution, has the potential to lead to improved predicting tools for design. To date, design equations have been mostly derived empirically, i.e., by parametric modelling (at generally-small scales) corresponding to specific structure configurations, and for limited ranges of hydraulic conditions. Although these approaches allowed different authors to propose many empirical and/or semi-empirical equations, they lack generality and may lead to incorrect estimations when applied outside their ranges of validity. First-principles-based methods with solid calibration and validation procedures can overcome these issues. Following recent theoretical advancements presented elsewhere by the last three authors, in this work we analyze and test the predictive capability of a scour evolution model based on the phenomenological theory of turbulence (PTT) by using a large dataset pertaining to different grade-control structures. Although the PTT model was developed (and validated) for scour evolution caused by oblique and vertical plunging jets, we show that its basic assumptions are still valid for the addressed low-head structures, encompassing rock structures, stepped gabion weirs, rock and bed sills, and others. Furthermore, we also provide interesting insights on scour evolution by contrasting the predicting capability of our model against experimental data by different authors for specific structures. Results of the comparison conclusively show that the PTT model has a general validity and represents a trustable tool to estimate scour evolution regardless of the structure configuration and hydraulic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering)
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Article
Experimental Analysis of Scour Features at Chevrons in Straight Channel
Water 2021, 13(7), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070971 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Eco-friendly river restoration structures are used to create localized scour pools which serve as fish nurseries and promote biodiversity. In this category, chevrons are relatively new structures designed to maintain navigability in rivers. The scour hole formed in the wake region of chevrons [...] Read more.
Eco-friendly river restoration structures are used to create localized scour pools which serve as fish nurseries and promote biodiversity. In this category, chevrons are relatively new structures designed to maintain navigability in rivers. The scour hole formed in the wake region of chevrons can either act as a disposal site for dredged material or as a resting spot for different fish species. However, only few studies are present in the literature dealing with the scour mechanism due to chevrons. Therefore, this work aims to analyze the scour features at equilibrium, under different hydraulic conditions and transversal locations in a straight channel. Tests were conducted with both isolated and multiple chevrons in series arrangement. Scour morphology types were classified and their fields of existence were established as well. A detailed dimensional analysis was conducted, allowing us to identify the main parameters governing the scour phenomenon and derive a novel equivalent densimetric Froude number. Finally, empirical equations were developed to predict the maximum scour depth and length as well as the maximum dune height. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering)
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Article
Experimental Analysis of Structures for Trapping SARS-CoV-2-Related Floating Waste in Rivers
Water 2021, 13(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060771 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Personal protection equipment (PPE, e.g., masks and gloves) related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic may represent a significant source of riverine plastic pollution. Several studies were conducted to analyze plastic transport in rivers; however, apparently, none of them [...] Read more.
Personal protection equipment (PPE, e.g., masks and gloves) related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic may represent a significant source of riverine plastic pollution. Several studies were conducted to analyze plastic transport in rivers; however, apparently, none of them systematically investigated the efficiency of countermeasures in trapping/stopping floating plastic and nonwoven fabric materials originating from the abovementioned PPE. To fill this gap of knowledge and considering the current importance of the topic, the present paper aims at investigating the efficiency of several structure configurations that can be located in both natural and artificial water bodies. To this end, two different efficiencies were defined, i.e., kinematic (for isolated structures) and trapping (for structures in series). Experimental results evidenced that both the kinematic and the trapping efficiencies increase with the Froude number. We also developed empirical equations, which may be applied for predicting the structure efficiency in limiting plastic transport in rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering)
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Article
Investigation on the Water Flow Evolution in a Filled Fracture under Seepage-Induced Erosion
Water 2020, 12(11), 3188; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113188 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
Water inrush is a major geological hazard for safe mining and tunnel construction. For the water inrush channel containing mud, sand, and other sediments, it is difficult to predict the change of permeability and water surge, which makes disaster prevention difficult. As a [...] Read more.
Water inrush is a major geological hazard for safe mining and tunnel construction. For the water inrush channel containing mud, sand, and other sediments, it is difficult to predict the change of permeability and water surge, which makes disaster prevention difficult. As a typical water inrush channel, a filled fracture under seepage-induced erosion needs to be focused. In this work, a numerical model for the evolution of flow in a filled fracture under seepage-induced erosion was established, which included the seepage velocity, hydraulic erosion, and permeability of the filling medium. The effects of joint roughness coefficient (JRC) and homogeneity of the filling medium on the seepage evolution are discussed. The results showed that the fracture seepage properties experienced a non-linear change process, and the evolution can be divided into three phases: the slowly varying phase, the rapidly varying phase, and the stable phase. The increase of the JRC hindered the development in flow velocity and erosion. Compared with low homogeneous filling medium, pores in the high homogeneous filling medium were easier to expand and connect, and the seepage characteristics evolved faster. The model established in this study will help to understand the seepage evolution of filled fractures, and can be used to predict the permeability of filled fractures in engineering geology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering)
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Article
An Examination of the Dependency between Maximum Equilibrium Local Scour Depth and the Grain Size/Structure Size Ratio
Water 2020, 12(11), 3117; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113117 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 593
Abstract
This paper begins by demonstrating how the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) local scour equations take the ratio between grain size and structure size into account when computing equilibrium local scour depth and contrasts this with the well-known Colorado State University (CSU) equation [...] Read more.
This paper begins by demonstrating how the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) local scour equations take the ratio between grain size and structure size into account when computing equilibrium local scour depth and contrasts this with the well-known Colorado State University (CSU) equation that does not take sediment information into account. Then, a relatively recent empirical formulation from the J-L. Briaud research group for computing local equilibrium scour depth is presented that appears to take the structure size/grain size ratio into account indirectly. Next, a possible explanation for the dependency between local equilibrium scour depth and the structure/grain size ratio is presented that was originally developed by D. Max Sheppard in 2004. This explanation shows that superimposing the pressure gradient around a particle with the pressure gradient around a pile leads to the dependency between equilibrium scour depth and the grain size/structure size ratio. Finally, a new formulation for local equilibrium scour depth based upon turbulent energy spectrum decay is presented. This new formulation reduces the local scour problem to a problem whereby turbulent diffusivity must be better understood. However, this new formulation also appears to show a dependency between equilibrium scour depth and the grain size/structure size ratio. Overall, the analysis presented herein provides several reasons, explanations, and pieces of evidence to suggest that the grain/structure size ratio is an important parameter to consider when computing local equilibrium scour depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering)
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Review

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Review
A Review on Existing Methods to Assess Hydraulic Erodibility Downstream of Dam Spillways
Water 2021, 13(22), 3205; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223205 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1492
Abstract
In recent years, rock scouring or erosion downstream of dams has become an increasing dam safety concern. Several theoretical, semi-theoretical, semi-analytical and numerical methods can be used to assess the rock erosion in hydraulic structures. Semi-theoretical approaches determine the correlation between the erosive [...] Read more.
In recent years, rock scouring or erosion downstream of dams has become an increasing dam safety concern. Several theoretical, semi-theoretical, semi-analytical and numerical methods can be used to assess the rock erosion in hydraulic structures. Semi-theoretical approaches determine the correlation between the erosive intensity of fluid flow and the resistive capacity of rock. Such approaches establish the scour thresholds as a function of erosive intensity of water and several rock mass indices by using in situ data and a curve-fitting approach. In some studies, the excavatability index, initially developed for rock mass stability analysis, was used to analyse the rock mass resistance in hydraulic erodibility analysis. The effectivity and weight of the geomechanical parameters used are yet to be determined on the basis of the erodibility phenomenon. The semi-analytical methods are developed on the basis of the mechanical and hydraulic interaction of rock mass and water. Four methods developed by Bollaert et al. are important in determining the erodibility in the plunge pool, but they are not applicable in the case of spillways. They used the comprehensive fracture mechanics for closed-end joints, quasi-steady impulsion, and dynamic impulsion (DI) for blocky rock erosion. The application of these methods to each site is necessary to identify constants that are difficult to determine. Few numerical methods are available to assess the rock mass erosion in hydraulic structures. In the case of numerical methods, the erosive agent is indistinct, and the hydraulic hazard parameter on the spillway surface is almost challenging to apply. This study comprehensively reviews the mechanism of erosion and the methods for assessing the risk of potential rock mass erosion downstream of dams and hydraulic structures. The advantages and disadvantages of all methods are discussed and the potential future research directions in this domain are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering)
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Review
Identification of Hydraulic Parameters Influencing the Hydraulic Erodibility of Spillway Flow Channels
Water 2021, 13(21), 2950; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212950 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
The rock mass erosion of dam spillways, a phenomenon involving the interaction between the hydraulic load of water and the capability of the rock mass to resist its destruction, remains a critical safety issue. The erosion resistance of a rock mass can be [...] Read more.
The rock mass erosion of dam spillways, a phenomenon involving the interaction between the hydraulic load of water and the capability of the rock mass to resist its destruction, remains a critical safety issue. The erosion resistance of a rock mass can be estimated through several erodibility indices, including those of Kirsten, Pells or Bollaert. Several indices have been developed to link rock resistance to the hydraulic parameters of water, i.e., the hydraulic load applied on a rock mass. The developed indices use the average flow velocity, the average shear stress on the bottom of the flow channel, the stress applied to the internal joints of fractured rock mass, the dynamic impulse force, and the power dissipation of water to represent the erosive force of water. From these indices, several methods of assessing hydraulic erosion have been developed, and all use the threshold line concept. Nonetheless, several uncertainties are associated with these methods. This paper presents and discusses the various means of calculating the erosive force of water as a hazard parameter for predicting potential rock erosion. The representativeness of these approaches is also discussed, and we clarify nuances associated with each method. We then provide guidelines for future research aimed at improving estimates of the erosive force of the water within spillway flow channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Processes in Hydraulic Engineering)
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