Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2023) | Viewed by 23658

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Civil & Construction Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia
2. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Gazipur 1700, Bangladesh
Interests: water; wastewater; saline water; quality; treatment; waste; impact
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, School of Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia
Interests: water quality; water treatment; water recycling; water harvesting; modeling; forecasting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human activities that generate domestic sewage and waste cause water pollution by contaminating water with disease-causing microorganisms and poisonous substances. Oil spills are another source of water pollution that have devastating impacts on surrounding ecosystems. Water and wastewater are polluted by various types of waste. Therefore, proper treatments of water, waste and wastewater are necessary to protect the environment from pollutants. Further, the resource recovery of valuable elements and the recycling of treatment wastewater are required to meet zero discharge policy.

This Special Issue focuses on water, waste and wastewater in terms of treatment and resource recovery. We invite the submission of contributions that highlight best practice in the development and implementation of schemes for the monitoring and assessment of water and wastewater quality and waste management. We welcome original research papers, case studies and critical reviews.

Dr. Amimul Ahsan
Dr. Monzur Imteaz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water
  • wastewater
  • saline water
  • water quality
  • wastewater quality
  • treatment
  • waste
  • impact
  • cycle
  • effluent
  • sewage
  • pollution
  • reuse
  • recycle
  • resource recovery
  • desalination, ecosystems
  • zero discharge policy
  • STP
  • ETP
  • EIA
  • MSW

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2648 KiB  
Article
Solar Disinfection Using Zero Valent Iron for Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Total Coliforms in Water Using a Raceway Reactor
by Hugo Lienqueo-Aburto, Lorena Cornejo-Ponce, Laura Baca-Delgado, Patricia Vilca-Salinas and María Janet Arenas-Herrera
Water 2023, 15(18), 3211; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183211 - 09 Sep 2023
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Contamination from microorganisms is one of the gravest types of water pollution. In 2022, there were 842,000 new cases of gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to size, construct, and evaluate a Raceway reactor (28 L total capacity) as a [...] Read more.
Contamination from microorganisms is one of the gravest types of water pollution. In 2022, there were 842,000 new cases of gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to size, construct, and evaluate a Raceway reactor (28 L total capacity) as a laboratory-scale solar disinfection system for the inactivation of Escherichia coli and total coliforms in water, using Zero Valent Iron (ZVI). For this purpose, a sample of E. coli contaminated potable water was treated with steel wool as a source of ZVI and solar irradiation. Using a 23 factorial design with four central points and a total of 12 trials, the following was investigated: the effect of the Fe0 dose (0.6–1.8 g L−1); it should be noted that both the natural and drinking waters of the study area have iron concentrations of less than 0.1 mg L−1. Depth tests of the treated water in the reactor were carried out at different levels (5, 7 and 9 cm) and with a duration of four to six hours. Therefore, it is concluded that the reactor/ZVI is effective for the disinfection of E. coli and total coliforms at concentrations >2419.6 MPN/100 mL, reaching 99.96% disinfection for both cases; it is also a cost-effective treatment due to its inexpensive inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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12 pages, 2354 KiB  
Article
The Potential Use of Moringa peregrina Seeds and Seed Extract as a Bio-Coagulant for Water Purification
by Moetaz Elsergany
Water 2023, 15(15), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152804 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
Moringa is a genus with many applications; some of these applications can be linked to their use in traditional medicine and as a source of nutrients, and traditionally, some species have been used for water purification. Many studies have been conducted to assess [...] Read more.
Moringa is a genus with many applications; some of these applications can be linked to their use in traditional medicine and as a source of nutrients, and traditionally, some species have been used for water purification. Many studies have been conducted to assess the use of different species of Moringa for water purification. One of the species that is extensively studied is M. Oleifera because of its wide geographical distribution. There are limited studies on M. peregrina due to its limited geographical distribution, as it is native to the Arabian Peninsula and some other countries in the Middle East. The aim of this study is to assess the potential use of M. peregrina for water coagulation. This study was conducted using synthetic water samples as well as real, untreated wastewater samples to determine the potential of M. peregrina seeds for water coagulation. The results revealed that M. peregrina seed extract had better turbidity removal at 60 °C compared with the use of the seed extract at room temperature, and increasing the ionic strength of the extracting solution could also improve the efficiency of the seed extract in terms of turbidity removal. Furthermore, the de-oiled seed extract showed efficiency comparable with that of the raw seeds. Application to the real wastewater samples showed that the de-oiled seed extract showed percentage removal of 38%, 81%, and 74% for SCOD, turbidity, and color, respectively. Furthermore, the de-oiled M. peregrina seed extract at a dose of 200 mg/L equivalent to raw seeds was capable of removing 97.4%, 66.5%, 51.8%, 50.3%, and 45.8% of Mo, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Co, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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12 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Water Quality Index (WQI) in and around Dhaka City Using Groundwater Quality Parameters
by Amimul Ahsan, Tahmeed Ahmed, M. Alhaz Uddin, Ali O. Al-Sulttani, M. Shafiquzzaman, M. Rashedul Islam, M. Sabbir Ahmed, Alamin, M. Mohadesh, M. Nazmul Haque, Motrih Al-Mutiry and Ali Masria
Water 2023, 15(14), 2666; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142666 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Groundwater quality deterioration due to anthropogenic natural activities and its immense utilization in various sectors is considered a great concern. The aim of this study is to determine the groundwater quality parameters at various sources in and around Dhaka city and compare them [...] Read more.
Groundwater quality deterioration due to anthropogenic natural activities and its immense utilization in various sectors is considered a great concern. The aim of this study is to determine the groundwater quality parameters at various sources in and around Dhaka city and compare them with Bangladesh drinking water standards. In this study, six groundwater quality parameters (pH, DO, COD, TS, TDS, and arsenic) and ten groundwater samples are analyzed to determine the water quality. The collected samples have maximum and minimum pH values of 6.9 and 6.4, respectively. Maximum and minimum DO values are 0.3 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The arsenic concentration is 0 mg/L for all collected groundwater samples. The maximum and minimum COD values are 0.3 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The maximum and minimum TS values are 4 and 1 mg/L, respectively. The obtained values are then compared with the Bangladesh drinking water quality standards. Finally, the water quality index (WQI) values are calculated to determine the suitable uses of groundwater in and around Dhaka city. Based on WQI values, the groundwater quality is excellent in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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16 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
Study on Facile and Full-Scale Reuse Treatment of Wastewater Produced from Tail Gas Oxidation-Absorption Technology of Natural Gas Purification Plant
by Quanwu Tang, Jing Li, Jingqiang Fu, Dong Lin, Chang Yi, Liang Zhao, Qiang Zeng and Chao Hu
Water 2023, 15(12), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122259 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
The oxidation-absorption technology of tail gas is perfect for natural gas purification plants to ensure the up-to-standard discharge of sulfur dioxide emissions, but it can produce a large amount of wastewater. In this paper, a facile and full-scale reuse treatment strategy based on [...] Read more.
The oxidation-absorption technology of tail gas is perfect for natural gas purification plants to ensure the up-to-standard discharge of sulfur dioxide emissions, but it can produce a large amount of wastewater. In this paper, a facile and full-scale reuse treatment strategy based on the sequential combination of disc tube reverse osmosis and low-temperature and low-pressure evaporation desalination was proposed and studied. The produced light yellow wastewater was acid sulfate-rich organic wastewater, in which sulfate ions (SO42−) existed up to 6479 mg/L, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N), total nitrogen (TN) and suspended solid (SS) were 207, 71.9, 67.6, 1.28, 70.5 and 20.9 mg/L, respectively. After the reuse treatment, there was COD (6 mg/L), BOD5 (1.4 mg/L), TOC (0.9 mg/L), TN (2.07 mg/L), SS (6 mg/L) and SO42− (90 mg/L) in permeated water, and condensate water with COD (11 mg/L), BOD5 (2.3 mg/L), TOC (4.3 mg/L), SS (2 mg/L) and SO42− (1.2 mg/L) was obtained. Thereby, pollution indexes were reduced after the reuse treatment so as to meet the water quality standard (GB/T18920-2022) in China, and the total water recovery rate reached 98.2 vol%. Ultimately, the priority pollutant migration mechanism during the reuse treatment process was determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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23 pages, 1479 KiB  
Article
SWRO Brine Characterisation and Critical Analysis of Its Industrial Valorisation: A Case Study in the Canary Islands (Spain)
by Ángel Rivero-Falcón, Baltasar Peñate Suárez and Noemi Melián-Martel
Water 2023, 15(8), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081600 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5725 | Correction
Abstract
The most recent years of research have shifted the perception of desalination brine from being waste to a high-value resource, in consonance with a circular economy perspective. The Canary Islands, containing the largest number of desalination plants per square kilometre in the world, [...] Read more.
The most recent years of research have shifted the perception of desalination brine from being waste to a high-value resource, in consonance with a circular economy perspective. The Canary Islands, containing the largest number of desalination plants per square kilometre in the world, are a perfect location to study its characteristics and evaluate its potential. A total of 10 heterogeneous seawater reverse osmosis plants were selected to determine the brine’s physicochemical characterisation, comprising 37 parameters, and its correlation to the technical and operational aspects of the desalination plants. The results show a stable narrow range of the percentage of major ions concentration in relation to the total dissolved solids (55% Cl, 29.5% Na+, 8% SO42−, 4% Mg2+, 1.5% Ca2+, 1.2% K+, 0.5% HCO3, and 0.2% Br) irrespective of specific differences between plants. The results obtained in this study are highly beneficial to industrial suppliers and future users of desalination brine valorisation (DBV) technologies, allowing an estimation of the chemical composition of a brine through knowledge only of its conductivity. Such information is crucial before investing in and optimizing DBV technologies. Nonetheless, from an environmental, economic, operational, energy-based, and R&D point of view, several improvements are required to promote their large-scale feasibility and viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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23 pages, 3491 KiB  
Article
Changes in Global Domestic Water Use Due to Handwashing for Preventing COVID-19: An Assessment
by Muhammad Mizanur Rahaman, Afia Zahin Nita Hossain, Zahed Zisan and Muhammad Muhitur Rahman
Water 2023, 15(6), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061219 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2765
Abstract
The emergence of COVID-19 has created many unanticipated changes globally, particularly in terms of the availability and use of water resources. This study aims to estimate the potential increase in global domestic water use, exclusively due to the handwashing requirement for COVID-19. To [...] Read more.
The emergence of COVID-19 has created many unanticipated changes globally, particularly in terms of the availability and use of water resources. This study aims to estimate the potential increase in global domestic water use, exclusively due to the handwashing requirement for COVID-19. To assess the potential increase in domestic water use, this study analyzed population and water use data of 175 countries. Based on WHO guidelines, the additional water required for handwashing per person per day was estimated to be 0.018 m3 and was integrated with water use and population data for the analysis. These findings reveal that if everyone washes their hands six times a day solely to prevent the spread of coronavirus, global domestic water use and total water use would increase by about 11.96% and 1.25%, respectively. Africa (23.88%), Asia (15.05%), Latin America, and the Caribbean (7.18%) are anticipated to have the most significant increases in domestic water use due to the increased handwashing. This is a concerning phenomenon because these nations are already experiencing water shortages, even before the pandemic. These results may aid these countries in achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6, by guiding stakeholders and decision-makers to take action to address the water resource management challenges posed by the unexpected rise in water use caused by events such as COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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15 pages, 3737 KiB  
Article
Prototype Experiments Assessing Arsenic and Iron Removal Efficiencies through Adsorption Using Natural Skye Sand
by Shahnoor Alam Khan and Monzur Alam Imteaz
Water 2023, 15(4), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040785 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Based on earlier batch and column experimental results, it was established that Skye sand is suitable for removing arsenic from water through adsorption. As a real-size prototype may not always replicate results from batch and column experiments, this paper presents experimental results on [...] Read more.
Based on earlier batch and column experimental results, it was established that Skye sand is suitable for removing arsenic from water through adsorption. As a real-size prototype may not always replicate results from batch and column experiments, this paper presents experimental results on arsenic removal through a prototype arsenic filter using the same Skye sand used in the batch and column experiments. As arsenic-contaminated water is often associated with a high concentration of iron, which causes blockage of the filter system, this study also investigates the removal of iron from the water through the same filter media. First, several physical properties of the Skye sand were established through XRF, XRD, SEM and EDX analyses. Then, a real-size prototype was made based on an earlier design of a similar filter made of iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS). It was found that the current filter is capable of removing arsenic consistently to a level below the detection limit (0.05 µg/L) for a considerable period (up to 150 bed volumes). Additionally, the same filter is capable of removing iron to a level below the WHO-acceptable limit (0.3 mg/L). Analytical calculation suggests that the current prototype filter with Skye sand can produce arsenic-free water continuously for 600 days (100 L per day) with a feed arsenic concentration of 500 µg/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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13 pages, 5417 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Diphenolic Acid from Contaminated Water onto Commercial and Prepared Activated Carbons from Wheat Straw
by Raid Alrowais, Noha Said, Muhammad Tariq Bashir, Ahmed Ghazy, Bandar Alwushayh and Mahmoud M. Abdel Daiem
Water 2023, 15(3), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030555 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
The fabrication of carbon materials from biomass residues can be a promising economical approach for absorbing various target pollutants from aqueous phase. In the study, the adsorption of diphenolic acid (DPA) is investigated on activated carbons fabricated from wheat straw (ACWS) and commercial-activated [...] Read more.
The fabrication of carbon materials from biomass residues can be a promising economical approach for absorbing various target pollutants from aqueous phase. In the study, the adsorption of diphenolic acid (DPA) is investigated on activated carbons fabricated from wheat straw (ACWS) and commercial-activated carbon cloth (CACC). Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and operational variables (solution pH and ionic strength) are analyzed for the adsorption capacity of the DPA on both carbons. The results show that the ACWS has a higher surface area (1164 m2/g) and volume of micropores (0.51 cm3/g) than those of the CACC. The second-order kinetics model fitted the experiment data better than the first kinetics models with a lower percentage of deviation. The adsorption capacity of the ACWS (264.90 mg/g) is higher than the CACC (168.19 mg/g) because of the higher surface area and volume of micropores of the ACWS. The adsorption isotherm shows that the adsorption of the DPA on the ACWS and CACC is consistent with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. The pH has a significant effect on DPA adsorption onto both carbons. The adsorption process is favored at the acidic pH, but the presence of electrolytes has no effect on the adsorption capacity of both carbons due to the screening effect. Thus, the preparation of activated carbon from wheat straw is an attractive option to recycle the wheat straw to added-value materials that can be used for the removal of such pollutants from aqueous solution. These findings can increase the research knowledge about the management of different straws in a sustainable way to produce activated carbon for different applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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Review

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35 pages, 2457 KiB  
Review
State of the Art in Anaerobic Treatment of Landfill Leachate: A Review on Integrated System, Additive Substances, and Machine Learning Application
by Nur Ain Fitriah Zamrisham, Abdul Malek Abdul Wahab, Afifi Zainal, Dogan Karadag, Dinesh Bhutada, Sri Suhartini, Mohamed Ali Musa and Syazwani Idrus
Water 2023, 15(7), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071303 - 25 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
Leachates from landfills are highly polluted with a considerable content of organic and inorganic pollutants which pose severe deterioration to environment including soil, groundwater, surface water and air. Several mitigative measures have been applied for effective management of leachate such as biological treatment, [...] Read more.
Leachates from landfills are highly polluted with a considerable content of organic and inorganic pollutants which pose severe deterioration to environment including soil, groundwater, surface water and air. Several mitigative measures have been applied for effective management of leachate such as biological treatment, engineering device control leachate migration, physical/chemical treatment, and membrane technology. Among the alternatives, anaerobic digestion (AD) is promising, with effective removal of pollutants and high potential for renewable energy production and nutrient recovery. Landfill leachate (LFL) is an excellent source as a substrate in an AD system, with its high content of organic matters. The advantages and disadvantages of AD of LFL were extensively discussed in this review in terms of its potential as a co-substrate, pre-treatment application, and the types and design parameters of the digester. The review critically evaluated the previous studies on leachate treatment using an AD system as well as potential factors which can enhance the treatment efficiency, including the application of an integrated system, additive substances as well as potential inhibition factors. Pre-treatment methods have the potential to meet desired effluent quality of LFL before discharging into receiving bodies. The review also highlighted the application of kinetic modelling and machine learning practices, along with the potential of energy generation in AD of LFL. Additionally, the review explored the various strategies, and recent advances in the anaerobic treatment of LFL, which suggested that there is a requirement to further improve the system, configuration and functioning as a precursor in selecting suitable integrated LFL-treatment technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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Other

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1 pages, 467 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Rivero-Falcón et al. SWRO Brine Characterisation and Critical Analysis of Its Industrial Valorisation: A Case Study in the Canary Islands (Spain). Water 2023, 15, 1600
by Ángel Rivero-Falcón, Baltasar Peñate Suárez and Noemi Melián-Martel
Water 2023, 15(11), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112088 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 600
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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