Special Issue "Water Treatment: Desalination, Treatment, Reuse and Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. J. Jaime Sadhwani Alonso
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Process Engineering, Campus de Tafira Baja, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Interests: desalination; membrane; water treatment; water purification and reuse; solar photovoltaic and solar thermal
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Jenifer Vaswani Reboso
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Process Engineering, Campus de Tafira Baja, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Interests: desalination; water treatment; water purification and reuse; wastewater

Special Issue Information

In this Special Issue we want to compile the most relevant research related to water treatment based on desalination technologies applied to wastewater treatment in order to regenerate water for reuse and in the use of techniques for obtaining human drinking water and water for use in agriculture from brackish water or seawater.

Some of the drawbacks of desalination technologies are, on the one hand, energy consumption, and on the other, the environmental problem of brine discharge, which also includes the latest research on the best available techniques to reduce the consumption of energy and measures in the prevention and/or mitigation of environmental problems derived from brine.

Finally, new technological developments are aimed at new membrane processes, and you will have the opportunity to present your research within this edition. The topics to be discussed, among others, are:

  • Wastewater regeneration
  • Water–energy nexus
  • Elimination of emerging pollutants with membrane technologies
  • Advanced membrane process technologies
  • Minimization of environmental problems

Prof. Dr. J. Jaime Sadhwani Alonso
Dr. Jenifer Vaswani Reboso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advanced wastewater technology
  • membrane technology
  • desalination
  • osmotic pressure
  • energy recovery
  • wastewater reuse
  • membrane fouling

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Proposal of a Laboratory-Scale Anaerobic Biodigester for Introducing the Monitoring and Sensing Techniques, as a Potential Learning Tool in the Fields of Carbon Foot-Print Reduction and Climate Change Mitigation
Water 2021, 13(17), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172409 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 701
Abstract
This article presents a proposal of an anaerobic biodigester on a laboratory scale for introducing the monitoring and sensing techniques of the growth of microorganisms according to different parameters, where the redox potential, pH, pressure, and temperature have been measured in quasi-continuous mode. [...] Read more.
This article presents a proposal of an anaerobic biodigester on a laboratory scale for introducing the monitoring and sensing techniques of the growth of microorganisms according to different parameters, where the redox potential, pH, pressure, and temperature have been measured in quasi-continuous mode. For this task, a microcontroller system was used (Atmega328—Arduino). Importantly, the design is based on flexible and open-source software, hardware, and firmware (Scilab, Arduino, Processing), facilitating its modification for other related studies. This design was developed to help engineering students to learn and to understand the operation of an anaerobic biodigester, which allows us to know various properties of the system at any time, as well as its evolution over time. In this way, property curves can be drawn and related to each other to obtain a better understanding of the biodigester operation. In this context, the relationship between the oxide-reduction reaction and microbial activity was studied so that the redox potential can be a way of measuring the growth of microorganisms in an anaerobic environment. With all this, through these parameters, it is possible to introduce to engineering students the operation of this technology used normally like a very powerful tool for the control of the carbon footprint, for example in wastewater sector, and consequently for the mitigation of the climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment: Desalination, Treatment, Reuse and Management)
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Article
Advanced Drinking Groundwater As Phytofiltration by the Hyperaccumulating Fern Pteris vittata
Water 2021, 13(16), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162187 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
The reuse of Pteris vittata plants for multiple phytofiltration cycles is a main issue to allow an efficient phytoremediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater. Here, we assessed the capacity of phytofiltration of P. vittata plants grown for two cycles on naturally As-contaminated drinking water [...] Read more.
The reuse of Pteris vittata plants for multiple phytofiltration cycles is a main issue to allow an efficient phytoremediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater. Here, we assessed the capacity of phytofiltration of P. vittata plants grown for two cycles on naturally As-contaminated drinking water (collected in Central Italy), spaced by a growth cycle on non-contaminated water (N cycle). P. vittata young plants, with extensive frond and root development, were suspended individually in 15 L of water with initial As of 59 µg/L, without any additional treatment or water refilling. During cycle 1, in 45 days P. vittata plants reduced As concentration below 10 µg/L, the allowed EU limits for drinking water. During the subsequent 30 day-N cycle on non-contaminated water, no leaching of As from the roots was observed, while the water pH increased 0.9 Units, but is within the allowed limits. During cycle 2, under the same conditions as cycle 1, As concentration decreased below 10 µg/L in less than seven days. These results show that P. vittata young plants, previously used for the phytofiltration of As, do not extrude As and, when reused, remove As much more rapidly. No additional treatments were required during phytofiltration and thus this represents a sustainable, efficient, and scalable strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment: Desalination, Treatment, Reuse and Management)
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Article
Current Challenges and Advancements on the Management of Water Retreatment in Different Production Operations of Shale Reservoirs
Water 2021, 13(15), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152131 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Nowadays, water savings on industrial plants have become a significant concern for various plants and sections. It is vitally essential to propose applicable and efficient techniques to retreat produced water from onshore and offshore production units. This paper aimed to implement the PFF [...] Read more.
Nowadays, water savings on industrial plants have become a significant concern for various plants and sections. It is vitally essential to propose applicable and efficient techniques to retreat produced water from onshore and offshore production units. This paper aimed to implement the PFF (Photo Fenton Flotation) method to optimize the water treatment procedure, as it is a two-stage separation technique. The measurements were recorded for the HF (hydraulic fracturing) and CEOR (chemically enhanced oil recovery) methods separately to compare the results appropriately. To assure the efficiency of this method, we first recorded the measurements for five sequential days. As a result, the total volume of 2372.5 MM m3/year of water can be saved in the HF process during the PFF treatment procedure, and only 20% of this required fresh water should be provided from other resources. On the other hand, the total volume of 7482.5 MM m3/year of water can be saved in CEOR processes during the PFF treatment procedure, and only 38% of this required fresh water should be provided from other resources. Therefore, the total water volume of 9855 MM m3 can be saved each year, indicating the efficiency of this method in supplying and saving the water volume during the production operations from oilfield units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment: Desalination, Treatment, Reuse and Management)
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Article
Conversion of Whey into Value-Added Products through Fermentation and Membrane Fractionation
Water 2021, 13(12), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121623 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 744
Abstract
The cheese whey (95% composed of water) is an effluent produced in the cheese industry, of which more than 1.5 million tons are generated in Spain, constituting a serious environmental problem. The process starts with a new fermentative/enzymatic technology that totally converts whey, [...] Read more.
The cheese whey (95% composed of water) is an effluent produced in the cheese industry, of which more than 1.5 million tons are generated in Spain, constituting a serious environmental problem. The process starts with a new fermentative/enzymatic technology that totally converts whey, mainly composed by lactose, proteins, and salts, into a fermented product with higher added value. This new product is mainly composed by lactic acid bacteria biomass, ammonium lactate, and a protein hydrolysate. To separate valuable fractions, this fermented product is processed by a two-stage membrane system, which is a very innovative process in this type of fermented product. The first stage consists of ultrafiltration to separate all suspended solids. As a result of this stage, a product mainly constituted by lactic acid bacteria that have both agronomic applications, mainly as a biocontrol and biofertilizer/bio-stimulant, and applications in animal feeding as a probiotic, is obtained. The second stage consists of reverse osmosis used to concentrate the ultrafiltered permeate obtained earlier, leading to a microbiologically stable product and reducing transport costs. The concentrate is mainly composed of ammonium lactate and a protein hydrolysate, constituted by peptides and free amino acids, which has application both in agriculture as a bio-stimulant and in animal feeding, and the permeate is water, reusable in other industrial processes. This work demonstrates the technical feasibility of this valorization process to achieve the objective of “Waste 0” from a problematic by-product, while obtaining products with commercial utility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment: Desalination, Treatment, Reuse and Management)
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Article
Climate Change Mitigation Strategy through Membranes Replacement and Determination Methodology of Carbon Footprint in Reverse Osmosis RO Desalination Plants for Islands and Isolated Territories
Water 2021, 13(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030293 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
This article shows a climate change mitigation strategy by means of membranes replacement and determination methodology of carbon footprint in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants, valid for all the islands, and even isolated territories in the continent. This study takes the case of [...] Read more.
This article shows a climate change mitigation strategy by means of membranes replacement and determination methodology of carbon footprint in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants, valid for all the islands, and even isolated territories in the continent. This study takes the case of study of Canary Islands, where there are more than 320 desalination plants with different sizes, private, and public. The objective is to propose a new method which integrates this analysis with the replacement of membranes, from 0% to 20% per year in sea water reverse osmosis desalination plants, to reduce the carbon footprint and ecological footprint. If it is considered a replacement of 20% of the elements per year, the carbon footprint could be reduced to between 5% and 6% and even more if it is introduced low energy consumption membranes instead of high rejection elements. The factor mix in Canary Islands, according to the technological structure of the generation park that uses oil products, is around 0.678 kgCO2/kWh, much higher than in the Spanish mainland where it is 0.263 kgCO2/kWh. Therefore, it is estimated in Canary Islands 5,326,963 t CO2/year can be emitted, which represents 2.4 tCO2/person/year, 12 times more the admissible admissions per inhabitant in the Canary Islands, only considering the seawater desalination sector. This document shows the different results of the analysis of energy efficiency and the environmental footprints. This study may serve as a tool for the decision-making processes related to how to improve energy efficiency in desalination plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment: Desalination, Treatment, Reuse and Management)
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