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Article

Advanced Drinking Groundwater As Phytofiltration by the Hyperaccumulating Fern Pteris vittata

1
IBPM-CNR, c/o Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
2
Water Quality and Health Unit, Department Environmental and Health, Italian National Institute of Health, 00185 Roma, Italy
3
Egato1-Vt Ente di Governo Dell’A.T.O. N° 1 Lazio Nord—Viterbo c/o Provincia di, Viterbo Via Saffi 49, 1100 Viterbo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: J. Jaime Sadhwani Alonso and Jenifer Vaswani Reboso
Water 2021, 13(16), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162187
Received: 16 June 2021 / Revised: 29 July 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 11 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment: Desalination, Treatment, Reuse and Management)
The reuse of Pteris vittata plants for multiple phytofiltration cycles is a main issue to allow an efficient phytoremediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater. Here, we assessed the capacity of phytofiltration of P. vittata plants grown for two cycles on naturally As-contaminated drinking water (collected in Central Italy), spaced by a growth cycle on non-contaminated water (N cycle). P. vittata young plants, with extensive frond and root development, were suspended individually in 15 L of water with initial As of 59 µg/L, without any additional treatment or water refilling. During cycle 1, in 45 days P. vittata plants reduced As concentration below 10 µg/L, the allowed EU limits for drinking water. During the subsequent 30 day-N cycle on non-contaminated water, no leaching of As from the roots was observed, while the water pH increased 0.9 Units, but is within the allowed limits. During cycle 2, under the same conditions as cycle 1, As concentration decreased below 10 µg/L in less than seven days. These results show that P. vittata young plants, previously used for the phytofiltration of As, do not extrude As and, when reused, remove As much more rapidly. No additional treatments were required during phytofiltration and thus this represents a sustainable, efficient, and scalable strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; drinking water; phytofiltration; Pteris vittata arsenic; drinking water; phytofiltration; Pteris vittata
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marzi, D.; Antenozio, M.L.; Vernazzaro, S.; Sette, C.; Veschetti, E.; Lucentini, L.; Daniele, G.; Brunetti, P.; Cardarelli, M. Advanced Drinking Groundwater As Phytofiltration by the Hyperaccumulating Fern Pteris vittata. Water 2021, 13, 2187. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162187

AMA Style

Marzi D, Antenozio ML, Vernazzaro S, Sette C, Veschetti E, Lucentini L, Daniele G, Brunetti P, Cardarelli M. Advanced Drinking Groundwater As Phytofiltration by the Hyperaccumulating Fern Pteris vittata. Water. 2021; 13(16):2187. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162187

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marzi, Davide, Maria L. Antenozio, Sara Vernazzaro, Clara Sette, Enrico Veschetti, Luca Lucentini, Giancarlo Daniele, Patrizia Brunetti, and Maura Cardarelli. 2021. "Advanced Drinking Groundwater As Phytofiltration by the Hyperaccumulating Fern Pteris vittata" Water 13, no. 16: 2187. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162187

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