Drought Occurrences, Characteristics, Impacts and Mitigations

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 March 2024) | Viewed by 5326

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
Interests: effects of climate change versus human activity on water resources; water–soil–vegetation nexus and equilibrium in changing climate; watershed hydrology and stormwater management
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Guest Editor
School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, China
Interests: water-saving irrigation theory and technology; water–fertilizer coupling simulation; synergistic effects of crop growth and soil ecological environment; intelligent irrigation technology; saline–alkali land management technology; farming in water-limited regions

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Guest Editor
School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China
Interests: ecological hydrology, pollution hydrogeology, and urban hydrology; response of hydrology, environment, and crop growth to engineering measures, management practices, and climate change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Droughts occur when the available water is insufficient to sustain ecosystems, support agricultural productions, and/or maintain socioeconomic developments due to below-average precipitations, above-normal temperatures, significant increases in water consumptions and decreases in water yields, and/or water contaminations. For a given drought event, it may extend from a locality to a region or even a continent and can last days, months or years. Droughts can impact everything from plants to soil and tend to be exacerbated by climate change and inappropriate water management. This Special Issue calls for papers that study the occurrences, characteristics, impacts, and mitigations of droughts at various spatiotemporal scales using observations, simulations, and/or data analytics (e.g., artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) algorithms). The example topics include but are not limited to: (1) contributions of climate change versus human activities to droughts; (2) impacts of droughts on ecosystems and communities; (3) adaptative and mitigative strategies to droughts; (4) water shortage due to contaminations; and (5) models, algorithms, and decision-support tools for assessing or predicting the severity and risk of droughts.

Prof. Dr. Xixi Wang
Prof. Dr. Juan Yin
Prof. Dr. Lizhu Hou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • adaptation
  • climate change
  • data analytics
  • erosion
  • field management
  • irrigation
  • land degradation
  • modeling
  • resilience
  • sustainability

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 5779 KiB  
Article
Changes in Drought Characteristics in the Yellow River Basin during the Carbon-Neutral Period under Low-Emission Scenarios
by Xunyu Li, Yang Jiao and Jieyu Liu
Water 2024, 16(7), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16071045 - 05 Apr 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Droughts have a severe impact on the environment and social economy, and predicting their future changes is challenging due to significant uncertainties in climate change and human activities. Many countries have pledged to achieve carbon neutrality to limit global warming; however, few studies [...] Read more.
Droughts have a severe impact on the environment and social economy, and predicting their future changes is challenging due to significant uncertainties in climate change and human activities. Many countries have pledged to achieve carbon neutrality to limit global warming; however, few studies have focused on drought changes during the carbon-neutral period. Here, we analyzed the variations in drought characteristics across the Yellow River Basin (YRB) during the carbon-neutral period under two low-emission scenarios from 7 CMIP6 model outputs. The results show that the temperature and precipitation will increase significantly during the 2015–2100 period under both SSP1-1.9 and SSP1-2.6 scenarios. Compared to the historical period (1979–2014), the hydrological drought frequency is projected to decrease by 15.5% (13.0–18.1%), while drought severity is expected to increase by 14.4% (13.2–15.7%) during the carbon-neutral period. Meteorological droughts exhibit a similar changing trend, although the results vary between different regions. In general, more severe hydrological droughts may occur in the southern YRB in the carbon-neutral period under low-emission scenarios. This study has implications for future drought mitigation within the Yellow River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drought Occurrences, Characteristics, Impacts and Mitigations)
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17 pages, 3583 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Hydrological and Meteorological Drought Based on Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Curves
by Ahmad Abu Arra and Eyüp Şişman
Water 2023, 15(17), 3142; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173142 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
As a catastrophic phenomenon, drought has destructive impacts on water resources, the environment, and the ecosystem. Consequently, drought plays a vital role in risk assessment, water resources management, and drought mitigation plans. The main aim of this research is to obtain critical intensity-duration-frequency [...] Read more.
As a catastrophic phenomenon, drought has destructive impacts on water resources, the environment, and the ecosystem. Consequently, drought plays a vital role in risk assessment, water resources management, and drought mitigation plans. The main aim of this research is to obtain critical intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) drought curves and to provide a comprehensive understanding of the drought characteristics by considering the meteorological Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and hydrological Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI). Critical IDF curves for the drought index and return period selection are identified. Also, new terms are defined as the specific drought duration, the maximum drought duration, and the critical intensity based on drought IDF curves. The results show that the SPI3 based on run theory for 500 years return period has higher drought intensity compared with other drought indices. In some IDF curves, the 2-year return period of a 12-month duration timescale is not provided. Regarding the maximum drought duration, the SPEI12 gave a longer duration. With the new concepts in this research, the presented IDF drought methodology has a novel additional practice to identify the critical intensity and maximum drought duration. Using this methodology for any drought index will contribute to converting data with mathematical calculations into IDF curves for design and risk assessment purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drought Occurrences, Characteristics, Impacts and Mitigations)
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19 pages, 46683 KiB  
Article
Model-Based Assessment of Preventive Drought Management Measures’ Effect on Droughts Severity
by Ana Paez-Trujillo, Gerald A. Corzo, Shreedhar Maskey and Dimitri Solomatine
Water 2023, 15(8), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081442 - 07 Apr 2023
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Abstract
Preventive Drought Management Measures (PDMMs) aim to reduce the chance of droughts and minimize drought-associated damages. Selecting PDMMs is not a trivial task, and it can be asserted that actual contributions to drought alleviation still need to be adequately researched. This study evaluates [...] Read more.
Preventive Drought Management Measures (PDMMs) aim to reduce the chance of droughts and minimize drought-associated damages. Selecting PDMMs is not a trivial task, and it can be asserted that actual contributions to drought alleviation still need to be adequately researched. This study evaluates the effects of three potential PDMMs, namely, rainwater harvesting ponds, forest conservation, and check dams, on agricultural and hydrological drought severity. The Soil Water Assessment Tool is used for hydrological modeling and representing PDMMs. The threshold level method is applied to analyze droughts and evaluate the impact of PDMMs on drought severity. Findings show that rainwater harvesting ponds applied on agricultural land reduce the severity of agricultural droughts and hydrological droughts, particularly during the first months of the drought events observed in the rainy season. Results also reveal that forest conservation contributes to reducing the severity of hydrological droughts by up to 90%. Finally, check dams and ponds in upstream subbasins considerably reduce agricultural and hydrological drought severity in the areas where the structures are applied; however, they exacerbate drought severity downstream. The analysis was developed in the Torola River Basin (El Salvador) for the period spanning 2004 to 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drought Occurrences, Characteristics, Impacts and Mitigations)
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Review

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14 pages, 783 KiB  
Review
A Review of Drought Disturbance on Socioeconomic Development
by Xinyue Yang, Xingliang Liao, Dongrui Di and Weiyu Shi
Water 2023, 15(22), 3912; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223912 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Climate-change-intensified drought carries great challenges for socioeconomic development. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of research on the effects of drought disturbance on socioeconomic development within the context of climate change. According to the co-citation analysis of approximately 3000 literature sources, [...] Read more.
Climate-change-intensified drought carries great challenges for socioeconomic development. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of research on the effects of drought disturbance on socioeconomic development within the context of climate change. According to the co-citation analysis of approximately 3000 literature sources, it should be emphasized that challenges resulting from drought carry significant socioeconomic implications, including agriculture losses, increased financial burdens on governments, and escalating insurance claims. Drought can also trigger humanitarian and social crises, especially in resource-limited areas, resulting in shortages of food and water, population displacement, and health risks. Therefore, effective policies, informed by robust research and data, are crucial for addressing the complex challenges of droughts in a changing climate. Proactive strategies, including improved water management, early warning systems, and sustainable agricultural practices, are essential for a comprehensive response. Addressing the socioeconomic impacts of climate-induced drought requires a holistic, interdisciplinary approach, emphasizing collaboration among governments, communities, researchers, and international organizations. Implementing adaptive measures and risk reduction strategies enhances resilience and mitigates the adverse effects of drought on society and the economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drought Occurrences, Characteristics, Impacts and Mitigations)
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