The Impact of Water Level Changes (Frequency and Amplitude) on Water Quality in Lakes

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2023) | Viewed by 10482

Special Issue Editors

MIGAL-Scientific Research Institute, Tel-Hai Academic College, P.O. Box 831, Kiryat Shmone 11016, Israel
Interests: Kinneret; Hula Valley; limnology; wetlands ecology; freshwater plankton and fish ecology; lake and watershed management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
Interests: limnology, lake management, water resources; variability; remote sensing; lake level; Qinghai; Tibet

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The reality of global changes in climate conditions, particularly global warming, is known worldwide, globally expressed as both dryness and water scarcity in some geographical regions and water luxury accompanied by floods in other parts of the world. Consequently, water scarcity and overwhelming rainfall and river discharge require renovated design approaches to water level management in lakes. The management of water levels in lakes is a key operational factor tool under the circumstances of climate and, consequently, hydrological changes. Water quality protection and supply constrains are, therefore, crucial. Moreover, aquatic recreation along beaches affected by water level fluctuations, growth rates of submerged and emerged aquatic vegetation and fish reproduction capacities in the shallows are critical for the ecological services attributed to lakes. Limnologists and aquatic scientists are invited to contribute papers in the field of zoological, botanical and hydrological aspects of the impact of water level fluctuations on water quality in lakes.

Prof. Dr. Moshe Gophen
Prof. Dr. Thomas L. Crisman
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plankton
  • benthos
  • littoral
  • pollution
  • sediments
  • beach vegetation
  • wave action
  • nutrients
  • residence time
  • fish spawning grounds

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 7418 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Effect of Meteorological Factors on Predicting Hourly Water Levels Based on CEEMDAN and LSTM
Water 2023, 15(18), 3190; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183190 - 07 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
The magnitude of tidal energy depends on changes in ocean water levels, and by accurately predicting water level changes, tidal power plants can be effectively helped to plan and optimize the timing of power generation to maximize energy harvesting efficiency. The time-dependent nature [...] Read more.
The magnitude of tidal energy depends on changes in ocean water levels, and by accurately predicting water level changes, tidal power plants can be effectively helped to plan and optimize the timing of power generation to maximize energy harvesting efficiency. The time-dependent nature of water level changes results in water level data being of the time-series type and is essential for both short- and long-term forecasting. Real-time water level information is essential for studying tidal power, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has real-time water level information, making the NOAA data useful for such studies. In this paper, long short-term memory (LSTM) and its variants, stack long short-term memory (StackLSTM) and bi-directional long short-term memory (BiLSTM), are used to predict water levels at three sites and compared with classical machine learning algorithms, e.g., support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM). This study aims to investigate the effects of wind speed (WS), wind direction (WD), gusts (WG), air temperature (AT), and atmospheric pressure (Baro) on predicting hourly water levels (WL). The results show that the highest coefficient of determination (R2) was obtained at all meteorological factors when used as inputs, except at the La Jolla site. (Burlington station (R2) = 0.721, Kahului station (R2) = 0.852). In the final part of this article, the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) algorithm was introduced into various models, and the results showed a significant improvement in predicting water levels at each site. Among them, the CEEMDAN-BiLSTM algorithm performed the best, with an average RMSE of 0.0759 mh1 for the prediction of three sites. This indicates that applying the CEEMDAN algorithm to deep learning has a more stable predictive performance for water level forecasting in different regions. Full article
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15 pages, 6549 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Variation of Trophic Status and Water Quality with Water Level Fluctuation in a Reservoir
Water 2023, 15(17), 3154; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173154 - 03 Sep 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Water level fluctuation (WLF) is one of the important factors that affect reservoir water quality, habitat, species, and ecosystems. In this study, an independent sample t-test was used to evaluate the trophic status and water quality of the spatial and temporal variations [...] Read more.
Water level fluctuation (WLF) is one of the important factors that affect reservoir water quality, habitat, species, and ecosystems. In this study, an independent sample t-test was used to evaluate the trophic status and water quality of the spatial and temporal variations with WLF in Shihmen Reservoir, Taiwan. The results of this study show that the Shihmen Reservoir has the lowest mean water level and higher potential of showing eutrophic status in April and May. This may be attributed to a lower water level, water depth, and transparency in this period. However, although there is no statistically significant difference in mean algal abundance in spring compared with other seasons, seasonal mean algae abundance and the seasonal mean Carlson’s trophic status index (CTSI) show as highly and positively correlated. It means that the increase in the CTSI value may not only be caused by effects on the sediment increase but also by algal proliferation. Mean water depth seems to be one of the important key indexes for reservoir management regarding trophic status since it reflects water quality and can be easy to obtain. This study suggests that reservoir administration can use the water level as a reference threshold for controlling CTSI strategies. In proper hydrological conditions, administration should try to hold a higher water level in a reservoir to downgrade CTSI. Full article
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18 pages, 12705 KiB  
Article
The Salinity of the Great Salt Lake and Its Deep Brine Layer
Water 2023, 15(8), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081488 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3719
Abstract
The Great Salt Lake is a highly saline terminal lake with considerable fluctuations in water surface elevation and salinity. The lake is divided into two arms by a railroad causeway. River inflows enter the larger south arm, while the north arm only receives [...] Read more.
The Great Salt Lake is a highly saline terminal lake with considerable fluctuations in water surface elevation and salinity. The lake is divided into two arms by a railroad causeway. River inflows enter the larger south arm, while the north arm only receives minimal surface runoff. Evaporation from both arms and limited exchange of water and salt through causeway openings result in complex water and salinity processes in the lake. The north arm is typically homogeneous and close to saturation. The south arm is typically stratified with periodic occurrences of a deep brine layer. This paper analyzes the lake’s long-term historical salinity and water surface elevation data record. Its purpose is to better document the movement of salt and changes to salinity in time and space within the lake and the occurrence and extent of its deep brine layer. This work is important because of the lake’s salinity-dependent ecosystem and industries as well as the role played by the deep brine layer in the concentration of salt and contaminants. We documented that the deep brine layer in the south arm is intermittent, occurring only when causeway exchange supports flow from the north to the south arms. We found that the overall mass of salt in the lake is declining and quantified this in terms of mineral extraction records and historical density measurements. Full article
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18 pages, 5283 KiB  
Article
Are Water Level Fluctuations and Pelagic Water Quality in Lake Kinneret Directly Related? Perspectives of Nutrient Dynamics
Water 2023, 15(8), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081473 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 921
Abstract
Long-term records of Water Level Fluctuations (WLF) and nutrient dynamics in Lake Kinneret have indicated an independence between them. The winter’s high WLF with nutrient-rich conditions and the summer’s low WLF with nutrient-poor conditions are recurrent states. Are Water Level Fluctuations and Lake [...] Read more.
Long-term records of Water Level Fluctuations (WLF) and nutrient dynamics in Lake Kinneret have indicated an independence between them. The winter’s high WLF with nutrient-rich conditions and the summer’s low WLF with nutrient-poor conditions are recurrent states. Are Water Level Fluctuations and Lake Kinneret’s pelagic water quality related directly or indirectly? Overall, the results found that WLF and nutrient dynamics in the pelagic zone of Lake Kinneret are not co-partners, but independent escorts. The common periodical (monthly) distribution of nutrient concentrations in the epilimnion of Lake Kinneret indicates that a 20 m deep epilimnion formed following a decline in water input, temperature, and evaporation elevation, resulting in the decline of WL. There was a seasonal correlation between summer’s natural conditions and pelagic nutrients’ deficiency. Low WL in summer is the result of natural subtropical climate conditions, whilst dry or high rainfall seasons induce water input modification and consequently, the WL decline of nutrient inputs and independent followers. Full article
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13 pages, 4147 KiB  
Article
Historical Review on Water Level Changes in Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Incomparable Perspectives
Water 2023, 15(5), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050837 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3821
Abstract
A long-term (1933–2022) record of water level (WL) fluctuations in Lake Kinneret was reviewed. The dependence of the Kinneret WL management on climate change (flood–dryness alternate), dam and National Water Carrier (NWC) constructions constrained by water availability and domestic supply demands were indicated. [...] Read more.
A long-term (1933–2022) record of water level (WL) fluctuations in Lake Kinneret was reviewed. The dependence of the Kinneret WL management on climate change (flood–dryness alternate), dam and National Water Carrier (NWC) constructions constrained by water availability and domestic supply demands were indicated. A short-term range of maximal WL decline of 4–6 m and 4.6–6.5% of the total surface area of lake water shrinkage in Lake Kinneret was documented. Nevertheless, incomparably longer periods and higher amplitudes of WL decline accompanied by a dramatic shrinking of the water surface were documented in Lake Tchad, the Aral Sea and Lake Sivan (SAT). Therefore, the comparative results of WL decline in Lake Kinneret and in other lakes as SAT are not justified. Full article
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