Special Issue "Plant Virus Transmission by Vectors"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 January 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Véronique Brault
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
SVQV, Université de Strasbourg, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Colmar, France
Interests: virus, transmission, Luteoviridae, Polerovirus, aphid

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Viruses are transmitted from plant to plant predominantly by vectors, a process relying on the intricate interactions between host plants, viruses, and vectors. With the development of reverse genetics and the advent of high-throughput technologies, our knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing the virus transmission process has substantially increased. Interestingly, by connecting these molecular and cellular approaches with research on vector fitness and behavior, virus-induced deregulations in plants, which have an impact on the vector and therefore, potentially, also on virus transmission, have started to be identified. This Special Issue will present an overview of the research focusing on the identification of viral, plant, and vector determinants involved in virus transmission, the decoding of the cross-talk between the three players, and the impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on the transmission process. Combining the different research findings, scales (from molecule to cell, organism, and field), and various experimental approaches (mutagenesis, transcriptomics, metabolomics, behavior), this Special Issue will shed light on this complex but exciting research field.

Dr. Véronique Brault
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Virus
  • Plant
  • Vector
  • Molecular and cellular mechanisms
  • Virus manipulation
  • Biotic and abiotic stresses
  • Epidemiology
  • Vector behavior

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Modelling Vector Transmission and Epidemiology of Co-Infecting Plant Viruses
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121153 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Co-infection of plant hosts by two or more viruses is common in agricultural crops and natural plant communities. A variety of models have been used to investigate the dynamics of co-infection which track only the disease status of infected and co-infected plants, and [...] Read more.
Co-infection of plant hosts by two or more viruses is common in agricultural crops and natural plant communities. A variety of models have been used to investigate the dynamics of co-infection which track only the disease status of infected and co-infected plants, and which do not explicitly track the density of inoculative vectors. Much less attention has been paid to the role of vector transmission in co-infection, that is, acquisition and inoculation and their synergistic and antagonistic interactions. In this investigation, a general epidemiological model is formulated for one vector species and one plant species with potential co-infection in the host plant by two viruses. The basic reproduction number provides conditions for successful invasion of a single virus. We derive a new invasion threshold which provides conditions for successful invasion of a second virus. These two thresholds highlight some key epidemiological parameters important in vector transmission. To illustrate the flexibility of our model, we examine numerically two special cases of viral invasion. In the first case, one virus species depends on an autonomous virus for its successful transmission and in the second case, both viruses are unable to invade alone but can co-infect the host plant when prevalence is high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Transmission by Vectors)
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Open AccessArticle
From a Movement-Deficient Grapevine Fanleaf Virus to the Identification of a New Viral Determinant of Nematode Transmission
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121146 - 11 Dec 2019
Abstract
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) are nepoviruses responsible for grapevine degeneration. They are specifically transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by two distinct ectoparasitic dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema. GFLV and ArMV move from cell to cell as [...] Read more.
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) are nepoviruses responsible for grapevine degeneration. They are specifically transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by two distinct ectoparasitic dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema. GFLV and ArMV move from cell to cell as virions through tubules formed into plasmodesmata by the self-assembly of the viral movement protein. Five surface-exposed regions in the coat protein called R1 to R5, which differ between the two viruses, were previously defined and exchanged to test their involvement in virus transmission, leading to the identification of region R2 as a transmission determinant. Region R4 (amino acids 258 to 264) could not be tested in transmission due to its requirement for plant systemic infection. Here, we present a fine-tuning mutagenesis of the GFLV coat protein in and around region R4 that restored the virus movement and allowed its evaluation in transmission. We show that residues T258, M260, D261, and R301 play a crucial role in virus transmission, thus representing a new viral determinant of nematode transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Transmission by Vectors)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Multiple Variants of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus in Single Xiphinema index Nematodes
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121139 - 10 Dec 2019
Abstract
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is responsible for a widespread disease in vineyards worldwide. Its genome is composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs, which both show a high genetic diversity. The virus is transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index [...] Read more.
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is responsible for a widespread disease in vineyards worldwide. Its genome is composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs, which both show a high genetic diversity. The virus is transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Grapevines in diseased vineyards are often infected by multiple genetic variants of GFLV but no information is available on the molecular composition of virus variants retained in X. index following nematodes feeding on roots. In this work, aviruliferous X. index were fed on three naturally GFLV-infected grapevines for which the virome was characterized by RNAseq. Six RNA-1 and four RNA-2 molecules were assembled segregating into four and three distinct phylogenetic clades of RNA-1 and RNA-2, respectively. After 19 months of rearing, single and pools of 30 X. index tested positive for GFLV. Additionally, either pooled or single X. index carried multiple variants of the two GFLV genomic RNAs. However, the full viral genetic diversity found in the leaves of infected grapevines was not detected in viruliferous nematodes, indicating a genetic bottleneck. Our results provide new insights into the complexity of GFLV populations and the putative role of X. index as reservoirs of virus diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Transmission by Vectors)
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