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Detection of Multiple Variants of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus in Single Xiphinema index Nematodes

1
Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) Santé de la Vigne et Qualité du Vin, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)-Université de Strasbourg, BP 20507, 68021 Colmar Cedex, France
2
Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin (IFV), 30240 Le Grau-Du-Roi, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121139
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Transmission by Vectors)
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is responsible for a widespread disease in vineyards worldwide. Its genome is composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs, which both show a high genetic diversity. The virus is transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Grapevines in diseased vineyards are often infected by multiple genetic variants of GFLV but no information is available on the molecular composition of virus variants retained in X. index following nematodes feeding on roots. In this work, aviruliferous X. index were fed on three naturally GFLV-infected grapevines for which the virome was characterized by RNAseq. Six RNA-1 and four RNA-2 molecules were assembled segregating into four and three distinct phylogenetic clades of RNA-1 and RNA-2, respectively. After 19 months of rearing, single and pools of 30 X. index tested positive for GFLV. Additionally, either pooled or single X. index carried multiple variants of the two GFLV genomic RNAs. However, the full viral genetic diversity found in the leaves of infected grapevines was not detected in viruliferous nematodes, indicating a genetic bottleneck. Our results provide new insights into the complexity of GFLV populations and the putative role of X. index as reservoirs of virus diversity. View Full-Text
Keywords: GFLV; variants; Vitis vinifera; Xiphinema index; acquisition; High Throughput Sequencing (HTS), detection; Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP); genetic diversity; bottleneck GFLV; variants; Vitis vinifera; Xiphinema index; acquisition; High Throughput Sequencing (HTS), detection; Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP); genetic diversity; bottleneck
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Garcia, S.; Hily, J.-M.; Komar, V.; Gertz, C.; Demangeat, G.; Lemaire, O.; Vigne, E. Detection of Multiple Variants of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus in Single Xiphinema index Nematodes. Viruses 2019, 11, 1139.

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