Advances in Animal Influenza Virus Research: Third Edition

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 2996

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
WOAH Reference Laboratory for Swine Influenza, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia ed Emilia-Romagna, 25124 Brescia, Italy
Interests: swine influenza; virus NGS sequencing; influenza D virus; influenza A virus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Virology Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia ed Emilia-Romagna, Via Bianchi 9, 25124 Brescia, Italy
Interests: avian and swine influenza A viruses; influenza D viruses; coronaviruses; suid herpesvirus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of influenza A virus infections globally in both humans and animals. Of particular concern recently has been the worldwide spread of HPAIV H5, involving a large number of domestic and wild avian species and with recent reports of infections in mammals and wild animals. In 2009, there was a new influenza pandemic from a virus of swine origin, and since 2013, there have been several cases of HP and LPAIV H7N9 viruses in poultry with subsequent transmission to humans in China. Swine influenza viruses are also of great concern due to the frequent occurrence of reassortment events and the high antigenic and genetic variability of circulating strains, with negative implications for both the pig industry and public health. The ecology of influenza A viruses is very complex and involves a wide range of avian and mammalian host species. Influenza viruses have high mutation rates and are constantly evolving, allowing the virus to adapt rapidly to changes in the host environment, thus crossing the species barrier and leading to the emergence of new viruses with pandemic potential.

Other influenza B, C, and D viruses are also to be considered, and their importance should not be underestimated. Influenza D viruses, discovered only in 2011, were found to be present in cattle, but their ability to infect other species including humans is not yet well understood.

The aim of this third volume of the Special Issue is to provide a complete overview of all aspects relating to animal influenza viruses, such as the ecology of infection, epidemiology and populations at risk, pathogenesis, diagnosis, genetic and antigenic characterization of circulating viruses, phylogenetic analyses, and reassortment and spillover events. Reports of human cases of animal influenza viruses are encouraged. Research papers, review articles, and short communications are invited.

Dr. Chiara Chiapponi
Dr. Ana Moreno
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • animal influenza viruses
  • human infections
  • animal infections
  • epidemiology
  • pathogenesis
  • genetic characterization
  • antigenic characterization
  • reassortment events
  • spillover

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Detection and Characterization of Influenza A Virus Endemic Circulation in Suckling and Nursery Pigs Originating from Vaccinated Farms in the Same Production System
by Alessandra Silva Dias, Amy L. Vincent Baker, Rodney B. Baker, Jianqiang Zhang, Michael A. Zeller, Pravina Kitikoon and Phillip C. Gauger
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040626 - 18 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Inactivated influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines help reduce clinical disease in suckling piglets, although endemic infections still exist. The objective of this study was to evaluate the detection of IAV in suckling and nursery piglets from IAV-vaccinated sows from farms with endemic IAV [...] Read more.
Inactivated influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines help reduce clinical disease in suckling piglets, although endemic infections still exist. The objective of this study was to evaluate the detection of IAV in suckling and nursery piglets from IAV-vaccinated sows from farms with endemic IAV infections. Eight nasal swab collections were obtained from 135 two-week-old suckling piglets from four farms every other week from March to September 2013. Oral fluid samples were collected from the same group of nursery piglets. IAV RNA was detected in 1.64% and 31.01% of individual nasal swabs and oral fluids, respectively. H1N2 was detected most often, with sporadic detection of H1N1 and H3N2. Whole-genome sequences of IAV isolated from suckling piglets revealed an H1 hemagglutinin (HA) from the 1B.2.2.2 clade and N2 neuraminidase (NA) from the 2002A clade. The internal gene constellation of the endemic H1N2 was TTTTPT with a pandemic lineage matrix. The HA gene had 97.59% and 97.52% nucleotide and amino acid identities, respectively, to the H1 1B.2.2.2 used in the farm-specific vaccine. A similar H1 1B.2.2.2 was detected in the downstream nursery. These data demonstrate the low frequency of IAV detection in suckling piglets and downstream nurseries from farms with endemic infections in spite of using farm-specific IAV vaccines in sows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Animal Influenza Virus Research: Third Edition)
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14 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
In Ovo Models to Predict Virulence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5-Viruses for Chickens and Ducks
by Luca Bordes, José L. Gonzales, Sandra Vreman, Sandra Venema, Nadia Portier, Evelien A. Germeraad, Wim H. M. van der Poel and Nancy Beerens
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040563 - 4 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5-viruses are circulating in wild birds and are repeatedly introduced to poultry causing outbreaks in the Netherlands since 2014. The largest epizootic ever recorded in Europe was caused by HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b viruses in the period 2021–2022. [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5-viruses are circulating in wild birds and are repeatedly introduced to poultry causing outbreaks in the Netherlands since 2014. The largest epizootic ever recorded in Europe was caused by HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b viruses in the period 2021–2022. The recent H5-clade 2.3.4.4 viruses were found to differ in their virulence for chickens and ducks. Viruses causing only mild disease may remain undetected, increasing the risk of virus spread to other farms, wild birds and mammals. We developed in ovo models to determine the virulence of HPAI viruses for chickens and ducks, which are fast and have low costs. The virulence of five contemporary H5-viruses was compared studying replication rate, average time to death and virus spread in the embryo. Remarkable differences in virulence were observed between H5-viruses and between poultry species. The H5N1-2021 virus was found to have a fast replication rate in both the chicken and duck in ovo models, but a slower systemic virus dissemination compared to three other H5-clade 2.3.4.4b viruses. The results show the potential of in ovo models to quickly determine the virulence of novel HPAI viruses, and study potential virulence factors which can help to better guide the surveillance in poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Animal Influenza Virus Research: Third Edition)
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17 pages, 6911 KiB  
Article
Proteomic and Lipidomic Profiling of Calves Experimentally Co-Infected with Influenza D Virus and Mycoplasma bovis: Insights into the Host–Pathogen Interactions
by Ignacio Alvarez, Mariette Ducatez, Yongzhi Guo, Adrien Lion, Anna Widgren, Marc Dubourdeau, Vincent Baillif, Laure Saias, Siamak Zohari, Jonas Bergquist, Gilles Meyer, Jean-Francois Valarcher and Sara Hägglund
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030361 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 866
Abstract
The role of Influenza D virus (IDV) in bovine respiratory disease remains unclear. An in vivo experiment resulted in increased clinical signs, lesions, and pathogen replication in calves co-infected with IDV and Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis), compared to single-infected calves. [...] Read more.
The role of Influenza D virus (IDV) in bovine respiratory disease remains unclear. An in vivo experiment resulted in increased clinical signs, lesions, and pathogen replication in calves co-infected with IDV and Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis), compared to single-infected calves. The present study aimed to elucidate the host–pathogen interactions and profile the kinetics of lipid mediators in the airways of these calves. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples collected at 2 days post-infection (dpi) were used for proteomic analyses by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Additionally, lipidomic analyses were performed by LC-MS/MS on BAL samples collected at 2, 7 and 14 dpi. Whereas M. bovis induced the expression of proteins involved in fibrin formation, IDV co-infection counteracted this coagulation mechanism and downregulated other acute-phase response proteins, such as complement component 4 (C4) and plasminogen (PLG). The reduced inflammatory response against M. bovis likely resulted in increased M. bovis replication and delayed M. bovis clearance, which led to a significantly increased abundance of oxylipids in co-infected calves. The identified induced oxylipids mainly derived from arachidonic acid; were likely oxidized by COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5; and peaked at 7 dpi. This paper presents the first characterization of BAL proteome and lipid mediator kinetics in response to IDV and M. bovis infection in cattle and raises hypotheses regarding how IDV acts as a co-pathogen in bovine respiratory disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Animal Influenza Virus Research: Third Edition)
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