Special Issue "HIV-1 Latency: Regulation and Reversal"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ben Berkhout
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Dept Medical Microbiology, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Interests: HIV-1 gene expression and latency; viral RNA structure and function; virus evolution; antiviral therapy; patient-related virus studies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Alexander Pasternak
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Dept Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Interests: HIV-1 persistence and reservoirs, HIV-1 curative approaches, novel virological assays
Dr. Angela Ciuffi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Microbiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 48, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
Interests: HIV-1 integration, HIV-1 latency, innate immunity, transcriptomics and epitranscriptomics, single-cell analyses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes a persistent infection, resulting in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) if left untreated. Around 37 million people in the world live with HIV-1 with a global HIV-1 prevalence of 0.8% among adults. Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has saved millions of lives, as it suppresses HIV-1 replication, blocks transmission, and improves immune responses, preventing the development of AIDS. However, ART has to be taken lifelong, is prone to side-effects, and is unable to eradicate the virus. On top of that, 40% of HIV-infected people in the world still do not have access to ART. Therefore, HIV-1 cure research has flourished in recent years, inspired by an apparent cure in a single individual.

By establishing latent infection, HIV-1 forms long-lived reservoirs in infected individuals that persist despite decades of suppressive ART and are considered the main obstacle to an HIV-1 cure. Depleting the reservoirs is therefore the principal goal of HIV-1 curative strategies. So far, the concept behind most such strategies has been the reversal of HIV-1 latency with specific compounds, which was expected to result in the switch to productive infection, with subsequent elimination of infected cells by immune-mediated clearance and/or viral cytopathic effects. However, this approach has so far demonstrated limited success in clinical trials, mainly attributed to insufficient understanding of HIV-1 latency, which prevents the development of efficient therapeutic strategies for eradication of the reservoirs. Therefore, we need to accumulate much more knowledge about the regulation of HIV-1 latency before we can design a meaningful therapeutic intervention.

In this Special Issue, we seek reviews and original research articles that discuss the latest developments in the establishment and regulation of HIV-1 latency, as well as efficient strategies for its reversal and elimination of latently infected cells.

Prof. Dr. Ben Berkhout
Dr. Alexander Pasternak
Dr. Angela Ciuffi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • HIV-1
  • HIV-1 latency
  • HIV-1 reservoir
  • HIV-1 cure

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

Open AccessReview
HIV-1 Latency and Latency Reversal: Does Subtype Matter?
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121104 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
Cells that are latently infected with HIV-1 preclude an HIV-1 cure, as antiretroviral therapy does not target this latent population. HIV-1 is highly genetically diverse, with over 10 subtypes and numerous recombinant forms circulating worldwide. In spite of this vast diversity, much of [...] Read more.
Cells that are latently infected with HIV-1 preclude an HIV-1 cure, as antiretroviral therapy does not target this latent population. HIV-1 is highly genetically diverse, with over 10 subtypes and numerous recombinant forms circulating worldwide. In spite of this vast diversity, much of our understanding of latency and latency reversal is largely based on subtype B viruses. As such, most of the development of cure strategies targeting HIV-1 are solely based on subtype B. It is currently assumed that subtype does not influence the establishment or reactivation of latent viruses. However, this has not been conclusively proven one way or the other. A better understanding of the factors that influence HIV-1 latency in all viral subtypes will help develop therapeutic strategies that can be applied worldwide. Here, we review the latest literature on subtype-specific factors that affect viral replication, pathogenesis, and, most importantly, latency and its reversal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV-1 Latency: Regulation and Reversal)
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