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HIV-1 Latency and Latency Reversal: Does Subtype Matter?

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1104;
Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV-1 Latency: Regulation and Reversal)
Cells that are latently infected with HIV-1 preclude an HIV-1 cure, as antiretroviral therapy does not target this latent population. HIV-1 is highly genetically diverse, with over 10 subtypes and numerous recombinant forms circulating worldwide. In spite of this vast diversity, much of our understanding of latency and latency reversal is largely based on subtype B viruses. As such, most of the development of cure strategies targeting HIV-1 are solely based on subtype B. It is currently assumed that subtype does not influence the establishment or reactivation of latent viruses. However, this has not been conclusively proven one way or the other. A better understanding of the factors that influence HIV-1 latency in all viral subtypes will help develop therapeutic strategies that can be applied worldwide. Here, we review the latest literature on subtype-specific factors that affect viral replication, pathogenesis, and, most importantly, latency and its reversal. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; HIV-1 latency; shock and kill; clade; subtype HIV-1; HIV-1 latency; shock and kill; clade; subtype
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Sarabia, I.; Bosque, A. HIV-1 Latency and Latency Reversal: Does Subtype Matter? Viruses 2019, 11, 1104.

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