Newcastle Disease and Other Avian Orthoavulaviruses 1

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2024 | Viewed by 1158

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA
Interests: newcastle disease; avian influenza; pathogenesis; vaccine

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, US National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA
Interests: newcastle disease; avian influenza; host-virus interactions; non-coding RNAs; next generation sequencing; point of care assays

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important poultry diseases worldwide that is caused by virulent avian orthoavulavirus 1 (AOAV-1), which is commonly known as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) or Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In spite of the routine immunization with live and killed vaccines that is incorporated into vaccination programs, ND and low-virulence AOAV-1-related problems remain a considerable cause of economic loss to the poultry industry. Although AOAV-1 primarily affects birds, the virus can infect non-avian hosts including humans, where fatal cases have been reported. The control of Newcastle disease and other AOAV-1 infections requires multifaceted approaches with a better understanding of the causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and immunity.

For this Special Issue entitled “Newcastle Disease and Other Avian Orthoavulaviruses 1”, we invite the submission of original research articles and reviews focusing on both fundamental and applied aspects of AOAV-1 research.

Dr. Chang-Won Lee
Dr. Abhijeet Bakre
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Newcastle disease
  • avian orthoavulaviruses 1
  • epidemiology
  • pathogenesis
  • immunity
 

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2816 KiB  
Article
The W195 Residue of the Newcastle Disease Virus V Protein Is Critical for Multiple Aspects of Viral Self-Regulation through Interactions between V and Nucleoproteins
by Qiaolin Wei, Wenbin Wang, Fanxing Meng, Ying Wang, Ning Wei, Jianxia Tian, Hanlue Li, Qiqi Hao, Zijie Zhou, Haijin Liu, Zengqi Yang and Sa Xiao
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040584 - 10 Apr 2024
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Abstract
The transcription and replication of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strictly rely on the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, which is composed of viral NP, P, L and RNA. However, it is not known whether other viral non-RNP proteins participate in this process for [...] Read more.
The transcription and replication of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strictly rely on the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, which is composed of viral NP, P, L and RNA. However, it is not known whether other viral non-RNP proteins participate in this process for viral self-regulation. In this study, we used a minigenome (MG) system to identify the regulatory role of the viral non-RNP proteins V, M, W, F and HN. Among them, V significantly reduced MG-encoded reporter activity compared with the other proteins and inhibited the synthesis of viral mRNA and cRNA. Further, V interacted with NP. A mutation in residue W195 of V diminished V–NP interaction and inhibited inclusion body (IB) formation in NP-P-L-cotransfected cells. Furthermore, a reverse-genetics system for the highly virulent strain F48E9 was established. The mutant rF48E9-VW195R increased viral replication and apparently enhanced IB formation. In vivo experiments demonstrated that rF48E9-VW195R decreased virulence and retarded time of death. Overall, the results indicate that the V–NP interaction of the W195 mutant V decreased, which regulated viral RNA synthesis, IB formation, viral replication and pathogenicity. This study provides insight into the self-regulation of non-RNP proteins in paramyxoviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newcastle Disease and Other Avian Orthoavulaviruses 1)
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Review

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22 pages, 3491 KiB  
Review
Genomic Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Newcastle Disease Virus Genotypes in Africa: Implications for Diagnosis, Vaccination, and Regional Collaboration
by Charlie F. Amoia, Jean N. Hakizimana, Augustino A. Chengula, Muhammad Munir, Gerald Misinzo and James Weger-Lucarelli
Viruses 2024, 16(5), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16050795 - 16 May 2024
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Abstract
The emergence of new virulent genotypes and the continued genetic drift of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) implies that distinct genotypes of NDV are simultaneously evolving in different geographic locations across the globe, including throughout Africa, where NDV is an important veterinary pathogen. Expanding [...] Read more.
The emergence of new virulent genotypes and the continued genetic drift of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) implies that distinct genotypes of NDV are simultaneously evolving in different geographic locations across the globe, including throughout Africa, where NDV is an important veterinary pathogen. Expanding the genomic diversity of NDV increases the possibility of diagnostic and vaccine failures. In this review, we systematically analyzed the genetic diversity of NDV genotypes in Africa using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Information published between 1999 and 2022 were used to obtain the genetic background of different genotypes of NDV and their geographic distributions in Africa. The following genotypes were reported in Africa: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, XI, XIII, XIV, XVII, XVIII, XX, and XXI. A new putative genotype has been detected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, of 54 African countries, only 26 countries regularly report information on NDV outbreaks, suggesting that this number may be vastly underestimated. With eight different genotypes, Nigeria is the country with the greatest genotypic diversity of NDV among African countries. Genotype VII is the most prevalent group of NDV in Africa, which was reported in 15 countries. A phylogeographic analysis of NDV sequences revealed transboundary transmission of the virus in Eastern Africa, Western and Central Africa, and in Southern Africa. A regional and continental collaboration is recommended for improved NDV risk management in Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newcastle Disease and Other Avian Orthoavulaviruses 1)
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