Animal Herpesvirus

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 4705

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Interests: veterinary virology; graduate level advanced virology; bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1); equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) pathogenesis; genetically engineered vaccines; vaccine vector
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Herpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens and are excellent managers of the host immune response. They can successfully survive in the host, as in the case of alphaherpesviruses. Therefore, herpesviruses have a long history of co-evolution with the host species. They might have originated from a common ancestor of mammals and birds, and evolved and learned to adapt to their respective host using various survival strategies over time. However, there seems to be a common theme among the herpesviruses of different host species, for example, initial diversion or counteraction against innate immune responses and later evasion from host adaptive immune responses. Therefore, animal herpesvirus pathogenesis involves a delicate, yet dynamic interplay between the host and the virus. Since herpesviruses are part of a virome and may remain in their respective animal hosts for life, they can also impact susceptibility to other infections and disease-producing agents. For this Special Issue, we invite the submission of original research papers and review articles spanning the entire spectrum of herpesvirus–host interactions in different animal species from both the virus and host perspectives. Articles that present strategies for future vaccine development considering the complexity of host–virus interactions and the complications resulting from dual infections that include herpesvirus-mediated disease complexes in different animal host species are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Shafiqul Chowdhury
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • herpesviruses
  • innate immune responses
  • host adaptive immune responses
  • herpesvirus–host
  • interactions
  • susceptibility

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 3278 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Equid Herpesvirus-1 Replication Dynamics In Vitro Using CRISPR/Cas9-Assisted Genome Editing
by Rabab T. Hassanien, Côme J. Thieulent, Mariano Carossino, Ganwu Li and Udeni B. R. Balasuriya
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030409 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 872
Abstract
(1) Background: equid alphaherpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a highly contagious viral pathogen prevalent in most horse populations worldwide. Genome-editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 have become powerful tools for precise RNA-guided genome modifications; (2) Methods: we designed single guide RNAs (sgRNA) to target three essential [...] Read more.
(1) Background: equid alphaherpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a highly contagious viral pathogen prevalent in most horse populations worldwide. Genome-editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 have become powerful tools for precise RNA-guided genome modifications; (2) Methods: we designed single guide RNAs (sgRNA) to target three essential (ORF30, ORF31, and ORF7) and one non-essential (ORF74) EHV-1 genes and determine their effect on viral replication dynamics in vitro; (3) Results: we demonstrated that sgRNAs targeting essential lytic genes reduced EHV-1 replication, whereas those targeting ORF74 had a negligible effect. The sgRNAs targeting ORF30 showed the strongest effect on the suppression of EHV-1 replication, with a reduction in viral genomic copy numbers and infectious progeny virus output. Next-generation sequencing identified variants with deletions in the specific cleavage site of selective sgRNAs. Moreover, we evaluated the combination between different sgRNAs and found that the dual combination of sgRNAs targeting ORF30 and ORF7 significantly suppressed viral replication to lower levels compared to the use of a single sgRNA, suggesting a synergic effect; (4) Conclusion: data demonstrate that sgRNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 can be used to inhibit EHV-1 replication in vitro, indicating that this programmable technique can be used to develop a novel, safe, and efficacious therapeutic and prophylactic approach against EHV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Herpesvirus)
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22 pages, 4171 KiB  
Article
Validation of Candidate Host Cell Entry Factors for Bovine Herpes Virus Type-1 Based on a Genome-Wide CRISPR Knockout Screen
by Wenfang Spring Tan, Enguang Rong, Inga Dry, Simon Lillico, Andy Law, Paul Digard, Bruce Whitelaw and Robert G. Dalziel
Viruses 2024, 16(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16020297 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
To identify host factors that affect Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 (BoHV-1) infection we previously applied a genome wide CRISPR knockout screen targeting all bovine protein coding genes. By doing so we compiled a list of both pro-viral and anti-viral proteins involved in [...] Read more.
To identify host factors that affect Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 (BoHV-1) infection we previously applied a genome wide CRISPR knockout screen targeting all bovine protein coding genes. By doing so we compiled a list of both pro-viral and anti-viral proteins involved in BoHV-1 replication. Here we provide further analysis of those that are potentially involved in viral entry into the host cell. We first generated single cell knockout clones deficient in some of the candidate genes for validation. We provide evidence that Polio Virus Receptor-related protein (PVRL2) serves as a receptor for BoHV-1, mediating more efficient entry than the previously identified Polio Virus Receptor (PVR). By knocking out two enzymes that catalyze HSPG chain elongation, HST2ST1 and GLCE, we further demonstrate the significance of HSPG in BoHV-1 entry. Another intriguing cluster of candidate genes, COG1, COG2 and COG4-7 encode six subunits of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. MDBK cells lacking COG6 produced fewer but bigger plaques compared to control cells, suggesting more efficient release of newly produced virions from these COG6 knockout cells, due to impaired HSPG biosynthesis. We further observed that viruses produced by the COG6 knockout cells consist of protein(s) with reduced N-glycosylation, potentially explaining their lower infectivity. To facilitate candidate validation, we also detailed a one-step multiplex CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, an orthogonal method to KO that enables quick and simultaneous deployment of three CRISPRs for efficient gene inactivation. Using CRISPR3i, we verified eight candidates that have been implicated in the synthesis of surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). In summary, our experiments confirmed the two receptors PVR and PVRL2 for BoHV-1 entry into the host cell and other factors that affect this process, likely through the direct or indirect roles they play during HSPG synthesis and glycosylation of viral proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Herpesvirus)
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18 pages, 3792 KiB  
Article
Low gH/gL (Sub)Species-Specific Antibody Levels Indicate Elephants at Risk of Fatal Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Hemorrhagic Disease
by Tabitha E. Hoornweg, Willem Schaftenaar, Victor P. M. G. Rutten and Cornelis A. M. de Haan
Viruses 2024, 16(2), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16020268 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs), of which eleven (sub)species are currently distinguished, infect either Asian (Elephas maximus) or African elephants (Loxodonta species). While all adult elephants are latently infected with at least one EEHV (sub)species, young elephants, specifically those with low [...] Read more.
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs), of which eleven (sub)species are currently distinguished, infect either Asian (Elephas maximus) or African elephants (Loxodonta species). While all adult elephants are latently infected with at least one EEHV (sub)species, young elephants, specifically those with low to non-detectable EEHV-specific antibody levels, may develop fatal hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) upon infection. However, animals with high antibody levels against EEHV(1A) gB, an immunodominant antigen recognized by antibodies elicited against multiple (sub)species, may also occasionally succumb to EEHV-HD. To better define which animals are at risk of EEHV-HD, gB and gH/gL ELISAs were developed for each of the Asian elephant EEHV subspecies and assessed using 396 sera from 164 Asian elephants from European zoos. Antibody levels measured against gB of different (sub)species correlated strongly with one another, suggesting high cross-reactivity. Antibody levels against gH/gL of different subspecies were far less correlated and allowed differentiation between these (sub)species. Importantly, while high gB-specific antibody levels were detected in the sera of several EEHV-HD fatalities, all fatalities (n = 23) had low antibody levels against gH/gL of the subspecies causing disease. Overall, our data indicate that (sub)species-specific gH/gL ELISAs can be used to identify animals at risk of EEHV-HD when infected with a particular EEHV (sub)species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Herpesvirus)
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15 pages, 17100 KiB  
Article
Saikosaponin B2, Punicalin, and Punicalagin in Vitro Block Cellular Entry of Feline Herpesvirus-1
by Bin Liu, Xiao-Qian Jiao, Xu-Feng Dong, Pei Guo, Shu-Bai Wang and Zhi-Hua Qin
Viruses 2024, 16(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16020231 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 802
Abstract
In the realm of clinical practice, nucleoside analogs are the prevailing antiviral drugs employed to combat feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infections. However, these drugs, initially formulated for herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, operate through a singular mechanism and are susceptible to the emergence of [...] Read more.
In the realm of clinical practice, nucleoside analogs are the prevailing antiviral drugs employed to combat feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infections. However, these drugs, initially formulated for herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, operate through a singular mechanism and are susceptible to the emergence of drug resistance. These challenges underscore the imperative to innovate and develop alternative antiviral medications featuring unique mechanisms of action, such as viral entry inhibitors. This research endeavors to address this pressing need. Utilizing Bio-layer interferometry (BLI), we meticulously screened drugs to identify natural compounds exhibiting high binding affinity for the herpesvirus functional protein envelope glycoprotein B (gB). The selected drugs underwent a rigorous assessment to gauge their antiviral activity against feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) and to elucidate their mode of action. Our findings unequivocally demonstrated that Saikosaponin B2, Punicalin, and Punicalagin displayed robust antiviral efficacy against FHV-1 at concentrations devoid of cytotoxicity. Specifically, these compounds, Saikosaponin B2, Punicalin, and Punicalagin, are effective in exerting their antiviral effects in the early stages of viral infection without compromising the integrity of the viral particle. Considering the potency and efficacy exhibited by Saikosaponin B2, Punicalin, and Punicalagin in impeding the early entry of FHV-1, it is foreseeable that their chemical structures will be further explored and developed as promising antiviral agents against FHV-1 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Herpesvirus)
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