Special Issue "Metabolism of Mycotoxins by Animals and Microbes"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 May 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Heidi E. Schwartz-Zimmermann
Guest Editor
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department IFA-Tulln, Institute of Bioanalytics and Agro-Metabolomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The more we know about the metabolism and biochemistry of mycotoxins, the better the exposure to mycotoxins can be assessed and the better the negative effects caused by mycotoxins can be mitigated. Studying the metabolism of mycotoxins can lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers for estimating mycotoxin exposure. Likewise, knowledge of metabolization is crucial in the toxicity assessment of mycotoxins in different animal species. Furthermore, investigating the metabolization of mycotoxins by microbes is a vital part in the discovery and development of mycotoxin inactivators.

While the in vivo fate of selected mycotoxins has been extensively studied, the metabolism of other mycotoxins has at best only partly been elucidated. In addition, for some of the well-investigated mycotoxins, great differences in metabolism have been discovered between animal species. For instance, when only glucuronidation was considered as a metabolization pathway of deoxynivalenol (DON) in animals, biological recoveries of DON were below 20% in species such as cows, rats and chickens. The microbial transformation by de-epoxidation and, as only recently demonstrated, the pathways of sulfation and sulfonation provided the missing link. Considering that it took decades to elucidate the in vivo fate of one of the most common and most studied mycotoxins, more timely research on the metabolism of other mycotoxins is warranted.

This Special Issue of Toxins on ‘Metabolism of Mycotoxins by Animals and Microbes’ aims to provide a comprehensive overview of all topics related to the metabolism of mycotoxins. These include, among others, animal experiments on the metabolism of masked or emerging mycotoxins, ADME studies of mycotoxins in different animal species, toxicological studies in vivo and in vitro, the analytical methodologies involved, detoxification strategies based on microbial action, in vivo testing of feed additives, and biomarker research.

Dr. Heidi E. Schwartz-Zimmermann
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Mycotoxin biomarkers
  • Metabolization
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Analytical methods
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Detoxification
  • In vivo
  • In vitro

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Toxicokinetics of Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1 after Single Oral or Intravenous Bolus to Broiler Chickens Fed a Control or a Fumonisins-Contaminated Diet
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060413 - 21 Jun 2020
The toxicokinetics (TK) of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 (HFB1) were evaluated in 16 broiler chickens after being fed either a control or a fumonisins-contaminated diet (10.8 mg fumonisin B1, 3.3 mg B2 and 1.5 mg B3/kg [...] Read more.
The toxicokinetics (TK) of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 (HFB1) were evaluated in 16 broiler chickens after being fed either a control or a fumonisins-contaminated diet (10.8 mg fumonisin B1, 3.3 mg B2 and 1.5 mg B3/kg feed) for two weeks, followed by a single oral (PO) or intravenous (IV) dose of 1.25 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) of HFB1. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), its partially hydrolyzed metabolites pHFB1a and pHFB1b, and fully hydrolyzed metabolite HFB1, were determined in chicken plasma using a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. None of the broiler chicken showed clinical symptoms of fumonisins (FBs) or HFB1 toxicity during the trial, nor was an aberration in body weight observed between the animals fed the FBs-contaminated diet and those fed the control diet. HFB1 was shown to follow a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model with first order elimination in broiler chickens after IV administration. Toxicokinetic parameters of HFB1 demonstrated a total body clearance of 16.39 L/kg·h and an intercompartmental flow of 8.34 L/kg·h. Low levels of FB1 and traces of pHFB1b were found in plasma of chickens fed the FBs-contaminated diet. Due to plasma concentrations being under the limit of quantification (LOQ) after oral administration of HFB1, no toxicokinetic modelling could be performed in broiler chickens after oral administration of HFB1. Moreover, no phase II metabolites, nor N-acyl-metabolites of HFB1 could be detected in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolism of Mycotoxins by Animals and Microbes)
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