Special Issue "Effects of Food Contaminants on Human Health"

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Pauline M Anton
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Transformations et Agro-Ressources, Institut Polytechnique UniLaSalle, Université d’Artois, URL-7519, France
Interests: gut–brain–microbiota axis; immuno-endocrine gut homeostasis settlement; developmental origins of health and diseases; human nutrition; toxic residues in food; genome and epigenome alterations; inflammatory cell signaling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The production, processing, and preservation of food are associated with the appearance, disappearance, or structural modifications of many toxic substances (phytochemical residues, neoformed compounds, packaging migrants, etc.), to which we are all exposed on a daily basis. In the past couple of years, there has been growing attention paid to the public health consequences of environmental factors to which such substances belong, but too few studies have focused on specific periods of the lifespan during which we may be particularly vulnerable to such substances. Among these critical periods, the perinatal period is now recognized as being very sensitive to environmental toxic chemicals coming from food due to the programming of the main body systems in charge of preserving our health later in life.

This Special Issue aims to present research studies evidencing the influence of these potentially toxic molecules (pesticides residues, heavy metals, Maillard reaction products, packaging migrants, etc.) in human pathophysiology, with a specific focus on the perinatal stage. Studies may include, but are not limited to, the preclinical or clinical assessment of early disruption of settlement and maturation of the crosstalks between the gut, and the immune system leading to altered gut homeostasis due to maternal or progeny exposure to these toxics.

Dr. Pauline M Anton
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • low-grade inflammation
  • pesticide residues
  • heavy metals
  • Maillard reaction products
  • DoHaD
  • exposome

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Analysis of Multi-Pesticide Residues and Dietary Risk Assessment in Fresh Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) from Local Supermarkets of the Metropolitan Region, Chile
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100249 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 587
Abstract
In recent years, the official authorities in Chile have reported transgressions in the maximum residue levels of pesticides in fresh vegetables. There is no official information about traceability, pesticide levels, and potential health risks. The aim of this study was to analyse pesticide [...] Read more.
In recent years, the official authorities in Chile have reported transgressions in the maximum residue levels of pesticides in fresh vegetables. There is no official information about traceability, pesticide levels, and potential health risks. The aim of this study was to analyse pesticide residues and their corresponding dietary risk assessments in tomatoes from supermarkets in the Metropolitan Region. Pesticides were extracted using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe, QuEChERS method, and their concentrations were determined by using chromatography with HPLC-FL/UV and GC-MS/ECD/NPD, following the Analytical Quality Control and Method Validation Procedures for Pesticides Residues Analysis in Food and Feed, SANTE guide and ISO 17025:2017 standard. In addition, a dietary risk assessment was carried out by comparing Chilean data to international references. The results reported that 9% of the samples had pesticide residue levels above the maximum residue levels permitted in Chile. All the scenarios evaluated revealed the highest estimated daily intake and hazard quotients for methamidophos and chlorpyrifos. Both the active substances used were acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and were neurotoxic under chronic risk assessment. The results showed the highest chronic hazard index in the Chilean scenario for all age groups and genders. The evidence obtained revealed that methamidophos, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos should be restricted for their use in Chilean agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Food Contaminants on Human Health)
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Article
Food Contaminants Effects on an In Vitro Model of Human Intestinal Epithelium
Toxics 2021, 9(6), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060135 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Pesticide residues represent an important category of food contaminants. Furthermore, during food processing, some advanced glycation end-products resulting from the Maillard reaction can be formed. They may have adverse health effects, in particular on the digestive tract function, alone and combined. We sought [...] Read more.
Pesticide residues represent an important category of food contaminants. Furthermore, during food processing, some advanced glycation end-products resulting from the Maillard reaction can be formed. They may have adverse health effects, in particular on the digestive tract function, alone and combined. We sought to validate an in vitro model of the human intestinal barrier to mimic the effects of these food contaminants on the epithelium. A co-culture of Caco-2/TC7 cells and HT29-MTX was stimulated for 6 h with chlorpyrifos (300 μM), acrylamide (5 mM), Nε-Carboxymethyllysine (300 μM) alone or in cocktail with a mix of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The effects of those contaminants on the integrity of the gut barrier and the inflammatory response were analyzed. Since the co-culture responded to inflammatory stimulation, we investigated whether this model could be used to evaluate the effects of food contaminants on the human intestinal epithelium. CPF alone affected tight junctions’ gene expression, without inducing any inflammation or alteration of intestinal permeability. CML and acrylamide decreased mucins gene expression in the intestinal mucosa, but did not affect paracellular intestinal permeability. CML exposure activated the gene expression of MAPK pathways. The co-culture response was stable over time. This cocktail of food contaminants may thus alter the gut barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Food Contaminants on Human Health)
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Communication
Increased PACAP- and DβH-Positive Hepatic Nerve Fibers after Bisphenol A Exposure
Toxics 2021, 9(5), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9050110 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) that can be found nearly everywhere in our polluted world. BPA has been correlated with pathophysiologies that include psychological disorders, especially in children. This study used juvenile porcine models to investigate the effects of BPA [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) that can be found nearly everywhere in our polluted world. BPA has been correlated with pathophysiologies that include psychological disorders, especially in children. This study used juvenile porcine models to investigate the effects of BPA on the liver of developing vertebrates in order to determine the effects of BPA on innervated hepatic samples with the use of double-labeled immunofluorescence. This study specifically investigated the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) colocalized with a specific neural marker (PACAP) that has previously been correlated with specific pathophysiologies in the literature. In the liver, it was observed that there were significantly increased nerve fibers in the SNS colocalized with the neural marker PACAP after exposure to BPA at concentrations considered to be “safe” with the same or more profound effects at higher exposure levels. The implications of childhood exposure to BPA are then discussed with regard to several correlation studies that have linked BPA exposure to behavioral/psychological disorders. It is possible that BPA exposure in childhood may upregulate the SNS and PACAP levels, thereby contributing to the correlations in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Food Contaminants on Human Health)
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Review

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Review
Microbial Transglutaminase Is a Very Frequently Used Food Additive and Is a Potential Inducer of Autoimmune/Neurodegenerative Diseases
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100233 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) is a heavily used food additive and its industrial transamidated complexes usage is rising rapidly. It was classified as a processing aid and was granted the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) definition, thus escaping full and thorough toxic and safety [...] Read more.
Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) is a heavily used food additive and its industrial transamidated complexes usage is rising rapidly. It was classified as a processing aid and was granted the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) definition, thus escaping full and thorough toxic and safety evaluations. Despite the manufacturers claims, mTG or its cross-linked compounds are immunogenic, pathogenic, proinflammatory, allergenic and toxic, and pose a risk to public health. The enzyme is a member of the transglutaminase family and imitates the posttranslational modification of gluten, by the tissue transglutaminase, which is the autoantigen of celiac disease. The deamidated and transamidated gliadin peptides lose their tolerance and induce the gluten enteropathy. Microbial transglutaminase and its complexes increase intestinal permeability, suppresses enteric protective pathways, enhances microbial growth and gliadin peptide’s epithelial uptake and can transcytose intra-enterocytically to face the sub-epithelial immune cells. The present review updates on the potentially detrimental side effects of mTG, aiming to interest the scientific community, induce food regulatory authorities’ debates on its safety, and protect the public from the mTG unwanted effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Food Contaminants on Human Health)
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