Particle Physics and Symmetry

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 15026

Special Issue Editor

DESY, Hamburg & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Interests: high energy physics; particle physics; flavour physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Symmetries are one of the fundamental concepts that have guided the development of particle physics over several decades. On one hand, symmetries defined theoretical developments and identifications of interactions, and on the other hand, symmetries and their violation have been an important area of measurements in experimental particle physics. In this Special Issue, we gather the leading ideas about the application of symmetries in future theoretical development and how they will shape the experiments of the future. We would like to invite contributions from both experimentalists and theorists on the study and application of symmetries in particle physics and innovative ideas of physics beyond the Standard Model built on the foundations of extended symmetries. Ideas on how larger global and local symmetries can bring about novel dynamics, or on new sources for the breaking of discrete symmetries like CP or T are especially welcome, along with ideas on how to measure these dynamics.

Dr. Ayan Paul
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • Symmetry
  • Gauge symmetries
  • Global symmetries
  • Anomalies
  • CP violation
  • New physics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Heavy Quark Expansion of Λb→Λ*(1520) Form Factors beyond Leading Order
by Marzia Bordone
Symmetry 2021, 13(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13040531 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
I review the parametrisation of the full set of ΛbΛ*(1520) form factors in the framework of Heavy Quark Expansion, including next-to-leading-order O(αs) and, for the first time, next-to-leading-power [...] Read more.
I review the parametrisation of the full set of ΛbΛ*(1520) form factors in the framework of Heavy Quark Expansion, including next-to-leading-order O(αs) and, for the first time, next-to-leading-power O(1/mb) corrections. The unknown hadronic parameters are obtained by performing a fit to recent lattice QCD calculations. I investigate the compatibility of the Heavy Quark Expansion and the current lattice data, finding tension between these two approaches in the case of tensor and pseudo-tensor form factors, whose origin could come from an underestimation of the current lattice QCD uncertainties and higher order terms in the Heavy Quark Expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particle Physics and Symmetry)
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19 pages, 5624 KiB  
Article
Extending the Fully Bayesian Unfolding with Regularization Using a Combined Sampling Method
by Petr Baroň and Jiří Kvita
Symmetry 2020, 12(12), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12122100 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Regularization extensions to the Fully Bayesian Unfolding are implemented and studied with an algorithm of combined sampling to find, in a reasonable computational time, an optimal value of the regularization strength parameter in order to obtain an unfolded result of a desired property, [...] Read more.
Regularization extensions to the Fully Bayesian Unfolding are implemented and studied with an algorithm of combined sampling to find, in a reasonable computational time, an optimal value of the regularization strength parameter in order to obtain an unfolded result of a desired property, like smoothness. Three regularization conditions using the curvature, entropy and derivatives are applied, as a model example, to several simulated spectra of top-pair quark pairs that are produced in high energy pp collisions. The existence of a minimum of a χ2 between the unfolded and particle-level spectra is discussed, with recommendations on the checks and validity of the usage of the regularization feature in Fully Bayesian Unfolding (FBU). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particle Physics and Symmetry)
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28 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
QCD Theory of the Hadrons and Filling the Yang–Mills Mass Gap
by Jay R. Yablon
Symmetry 2020, 12(11), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111887 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 6188
Abstract
The rank-3 antisymmetric tensors which are the magnetic monopoles of SU(N) Yang–Mills gauge theory dynamics, unlike their counterparts in Maxwell’s U(1) electrodynamics, are non-vanishing, and do permit a net flux of Yang–Mills analogs to the magnetic field through closed spatial surfaces. When electric [...] Read more.
The rank-3 antisymmetric tensors which are the magnetic monopoles of SU(N) Yang–Mills gauge theory dynamics, unlike their counterparts in Maxwell’s U(1) electrodynamics, are non-vanishing, and do permit a net flux of Yang–Mills analogs to the magnetic field through closed spatial surfaces. When electric source currents of the same Yang–Mills dynamics are inverted and their fermions inserted into these Yang–Mills monopoles to create a system, this system in its unperturbed state contains exactly three fermions due to the monopole rank-3 and its three additive field strength gradient terms in covariant form. So to ensure that every fermion in this system occupies an exclusive quantum state, the Exclusion Principle is used to place each of the three fermions into the fundamental representation of the simple gauge group with an SU(3) symmetry. After the symmetry of the monopole is broken to make this system indivisible, the gauge bosons inside the monopole become massless, the SU(3) color symmetry of the fermions becomes exact, and a propagator is established for each fermion. The monopoles then have the same antisymmetric color singlet wavefunction as a baryon, and the field quanta of the magnetic fields fluxing through the monopole surface have the same symmetric color singlet wavefunction as a meson. Consequently, we are able to identify these fermions with colored quarks, the gauge bosons with gluons, the magnetic monopoles with baryons, and the fluxing entities with mesons, while establishing that the quarks and gluons remain confined and identifying the symmetry breaking with hadronization. Analytic tools developed along the way are then used to fill the Yang–Mills mass gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particle Physics and Symmetry)

Review

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17 pages, 1379 KiB  
Review
A Review of CP Violation Measurements in Charm at LHCb
by Federico Betti
Symmetry 2021, 13(8), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13081482 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 2035
Abstract
The LHCb experiment has been able to collect the largest sample ever produced of charm-hadron decays, performing a number of measurements of observables related to CP violation in the charm sector. In this document, the most recent results from LHCb on the [...] Read more.
The LHCb experiment has been able to collect the largest sample ever produced of charm-hadron decays, performing a number of measurements of observables related to CP violation in the charm sector. In this document, the most recent results from LHCb on the search of direct CP violation in D0Ks0Ks0, D(s)+h+π0 and D(s)+h+η decays are summarised, in addition to the most precise measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetry in D0h+h decays and the first observation of mass difference between neutral charm-meson eigenstates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particle Physics and Symmetry)
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15 pages, 4186 KiB  
Review
The International Linear Collider Project—Its Physics and Status
by Hitoshi Yamamoto
Symmetry 2021, 13(4), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13040674 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
The discovery of Higgs particle has ushered in a new era of particle physics. Even though the list of members of the standard theory of particle physics is now complete, the shortcomings of the theory became ever more acute. It is generally considered [...] Read more.
The discovery of Higgs particle has ushered in a new era of particle physics. Even though the list of members of the standard theory of particle physics is now complete, the shortcomings of the theory became ever more acute. It is generally considered that the best solution to the problems is an electron–positron collider that can study Higgs particle with high precision and high sensitivity; namely, a Higgs factory. Among a few candidates for Higgs factory, the International Linear Collider (ILC) is currently the most advanced in its program. In this article, we review the physics and the project status of the ILC including its energy expandability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particle Physics and Symmetry)
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