Special Issue "Applications Based on Symmetrical Characteristics of the Human Body"

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Karl Grammer

Department of Anthropology, University of Vienna, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +43 1 4277 9547
Interests: geometric morphometrics; computer supported analysis and simulation of human behavior; human ethology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most organisms are bilaterally symmetric and symmetry is supposed to contribute to biological fitness. Indeed, developmental stability refers to the capacity of an individual to produce a well-developed, symmetrical phenotype in the face of developmental perturbations caused by factors, such as disease, toxins, parasites, etc. The inability of an organism to implement such a developmental program when challenged by developmental stress leads to small random deviations in bilateral symmetry. Such deviations are referred to as fluctuating asymmetry, and may provide a measure of an individual’s exposure to adverse developmental effects and its corresponding ability to resist such stresses.

In humans, there is now considerable evidence that developmental stability relates to numerous biological fitness components. Hence, a symmetrical construction may signal the ability of an individual to cope with challenges in their environment. Numerous studies, for instance, have demonstrated that assessments of attractiveness are sensitive to facial symmetry, and might be linked with reproductive success while physical performance is dependent on symmetrical body construction. However, there are many open questions concerning the mathematical methods uses to assess symmetry and fluctuating asymmetry in 2D and 3D, or which parts of the body are affected by fluctuating asymmetry.

Prof. Dr. Karl Grammer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • The symmetrical human

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Functional Asymmetry and Fingerprint Features of Left-Handed and Right-Handed Young Yakuts (Mongoloid Race, North-Eastern Siberia)
Symmetry 2018, 10(12), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10120728
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
An ethnically homogeneous group of Yakuts (Mongoloid race, Northeast Asia), aged 18–31, was studied to characterize the diversity of particular features between left- and right-handed individuals. A total of 52 left-handed (32 women and 20 men) and 100 right-handed (50 women and 50
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An ethnically homogeneous group of Yakuts (Mongoloid race, Northeast Asia), aged 18–31, was studied to characterize the diversity of particular features between left- and right-handed individuals. A total of 52 left-handed (32 women and 20 men) and 100 right-handed (50 women and 50 men) individuals were studied. Testing included two sets of questions and tasks, dynamometry of the right and left hand, and fingerprint analysis. Left-handed and right-handed people were found to differ in functional asymmetry of psychophysiological and motor reactions. Right-handers were characterized by higher intragroup similarity, while, among left-handers, greater dispersion of these traits was observed. Asymmetry in hand grip strength was less pronounced in the left-handed people than in the right-handed; this difference was statistically significant, and the difference was greater in men than in women. This suggests that the non-dominant hand in the left-handed people was subjected to a greater load and indicates the forced adaptation of the left-handed people to “dextrastress”. No significant difference between sexes was found when analyzing fingerprint patterns. Left-handers had arches significantly more often than right-handers. Radial loops were most often found on the index finger, and, in the left-handers, their occurrence was significantly higher on three to five fingers of the left hand compared with the right-handers. The levels of fluctuating asymmetry in left-handers and right-handers were similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications Based on Symmetrical Characteristics of the Human Body)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Pattern and Shape Symmetry of Bilateral Normal Corneas by Scheimpflug Technology
Symmetry 2018, 10(10), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10100453
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bilateral symmetry in normal fellow eyes by using optical and geometric morphometric parameters. Methods: All participants underwent complete biocular examinations. Scheimpflug tomography data from 66 eyes of 33 patients were registered. The interocular symmetry
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bilateral symmetry in normal fellow eyes by using optical and geometric morphometric parameters. Methods: All participants underwent complete biocular examinations. Scheimpflug tomography data from 66 eyes of 33 patients were registered. The interocular symmetry was based on five patterns: morphogeometric symmetry, axial symmetry at the corneal vertex, angular-spatial symmetry, direct symmetry (equal octants), and enantiomorphism (mirror octants). Results: No statistically significant differences were found between right and left eyes in corneal morphogeometric (p ≥ 0.488) and aberrometric parameters (p ≥ 0.102). Likewise, no statistically significant differences were found in any of the axial symmetry parameters analyzed (p ≥ 0.229), except in the surface rotation angle beta (p = 0.102) and translation coordinates X0 and Y0 (p < 0.001) for the anterior corneal surface, and the rotation angle gamma (p < 0.001) for the posterior surface. Similarly, no statistically significant differences were identified for direct symmetry (p ≥ 0.20) and enantiomorphism (p ≥ 0.75), except for some elevation data in the posterior surface (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The level of symmetry of both corneas of a healthy individual is high, with only some level of disparity between fellow corneas in rotation and translation references. Abnormalities in this pattern of interocular asymmetry may be useful as a diagnostic tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications Based on Symmetrical Characteristics of the Human Body)
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Open AccessArticle Human Bodily Asymmetry Relates to Behavioral Lateralization and May not Reliably Reflect Developmental Instability
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040117
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: The link between behavioral lateralization and bodily asymmetry in humans is studied to investigate the reliability of fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of developmental instability; (2) Methods: Morphological asymmetries of arms and legs, obtained from 3D body scans, were correlated with
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(1) Background: The link between behavioral lateralization and bodily asymmetry in humans is studied to investigate the reliability of fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of developmental instability; (2) Methods: Morphological asymmetries of arms and legs, obtained from 3D body scans, were correlated with different measures of behavioral lateralization; (3) Results: Observed associations were in the directions expected, showing that more asymmetric use of the body increases asymmetry, especially in the arms, and more symmetric body use appears to have a symmetrizing effect; and (4) Conclusions: The results presented here question the suitability of human bodily asymmetry in arms and legs—or at least part of them—as a measure of developmental instability. There is a need for future research that identifies regions of the body that are not affected by behavioral lateralization and can reliably reflect developmental instability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications Based on Symmetrical Characteristics of the Human Body)
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