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Special Issue "Social Businesses and Social Entrepreneurship in the Face of Sustainable Development Challenges"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 24672

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Carlos Lopez-Gutierrez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Business Administration Department (Yunus Centre Cantabria), University of Cantabria, Santander, 39005, Spain
Interests: sustainable finance; social entrepreneurship; microfinance; corporate social responsibility; corporate finance
Dr. Ana Fernandez-Laviada
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Business Administration Department (Yunus Centre Cantabria), University of Cantabria, Santander, 39005, Spain
Interests: social business; social entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; digital entrepreneurship; impact economy; internal control; internal audit
Prof. Dr. Andrea Pérez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Business Administration Department (Yunus Centre Cantabria), University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain
Interests: corporate social responsibility; CSR communication; consumer behavior; social entrepreneurship; social marketing; banking; fashion; tourism
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Social business and social entrepreneurship are increasingly important for economic development policies because they create social and economic values. Their contribution to the development of countries is based on their ability to create employment, especially for the disadvantaged segments of society, or their contribution to innovation and the creation of new goods and services, often for unmet social needs. In addition, they play a fundamental role in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) promoted by the United Nations in their Agenda 2030. Achieving the SDGs requires collaboration across sectors, organizations, and individuals. In this context, social businesses balance sustainability and impact, so they are sustainable by design, and most of them particularly focus on solving the problems created by the current economic system.

From Yunus Centre Cantabria (Spain), we are delighted to announce this Special Issue, with the purpose of promoting research on the current challenges and opportunities for social business and social entrepreneurship in the face of the Agenda 2030. Papers submitted to this Special Issue should cover topics including the characterization of social entrepreneurs, measurement of social business impact, their contribution to SDGs achievements, etc. General topics related to social businesses and social entrepreneurship are welcomed as well. We are equally open to conceptual papers and empirical studies around this topic.

Dr. Carlos Lopez-Gutierrez
Dr. Ana Fernandez-Laviada
Prof. Dr. Andrea Pérez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • social business
  • social entrepreneurship
  • sustainable development goals
  • SDGs
  • social impact
  • impact economy

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
Unpacking B Corps’ Impact on Sustainable Development: An Analysis from Structuration Theory
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13408; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313408 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
With Our Common Future and the United Nation’s global call to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2030, public policies increasingly emphasise the need for various actors to contribute to a global transformation and a more sustainable future. Despite growing research on [...] Read more.
With Our Common Future and the United Nation’s global call to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2030, public policies increasingly emphasise the need for various actors to contribute to a global transformation and a more sustainable future. Despite growing research on hybrid organisations and their contributions to sustainable development, their impact on accelerating this transition might be faulty. Looking at a type of hybrid organisation, Certified B Corporations (B Corps), this article draws on a multiple case study of nine B Corps in a developing country in Latin America, Colombia. The study builds on the Structuration Theory to examine to what extent and how B Corps impact sustainable development. The article empirically shows that B Corps focus on four categories of sustainable development: considering future generations; enhancing human development; encouraging new mindsets, behaviours, and lifestyles; and promoting socio-political engagement. The findings suggest that B Corps develop communicative and narrative discourses and symbolic schemas as means of signification and follow norms and moral rules to exert legitimation and utilise authoritative resources to exercise power. The article contributes to research on hybrid organisations, sustainability transitions, and business models. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Development Goals in Strategy and Practice: Businesses in Colombia and Egypt
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12453; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212453 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
Businesses may adopt strategies and practices that support sustainable development goals. Such strategies include considering social and environmental impacts as well as prioritizing socio-environmental benefits at a higher level than profits. Supportive practices comprise enhancing social benefits and limiting environmental harm. What SDG-related [...] Read more.
Businesses may adopt strategies and practices that support sustainable development goals. Such strategies include considering social and environmental impacts as well as prioritizing socio-environmental benefits at a higher level than profits. Supportive practices comprise enhancing social benefits and limiting environmental harm. What SDG-related strategies and practices are businesses pursuing? Are businesses implementing practices and strategies? Do the practices and strategies differ across societies? A survey of representative samples of 399 businesses in Colombia and 413 businesses in Egypt was conducted in 2021, by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The owner-managers reported that they frequently had strategies that considered social and environmental impacts of business operations, and they prioritized socio-environmental considerations over financial goals. In Columbia, there were more frequent practices that enhanced social benefits and limited environmental harm than in Egypt. In addition, strategies were implemented in practices supporting the SDGs more in Colombia than in Egypt. Our findings contribute to understanding business strategies that consider SDGs and their implementation in practices that are embedded in society. Full article
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Article
Social Economy and Social Business Supporting Policies for Sustainable Human Development in a Post-COVID-19 World
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12155; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112155 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
This paper explores the role that the social economy, and the social business within it, have in terms of the strategies deployed to tackle Sustainable Development challenges. This paper proposes a New Sustainable Recovery Approach (NSRA) leveraging the strengths of the social economy [...] Read more.
This paper explores the role that the social economy, and the social business within it, have in terms of the strategies deployed to tackle Sustainable Development challenges. This paper proposes a New Sustainable Recovery Approach (NSRA) leveraging the strengths of the social economy and social business to guide policymakers to rethink socio-economic actions for a post-COVID-19 world aimed at sustainable human development. The NSRA is based on three, self-reinforcing, components: the promotion of Sustainable Human Development (SHD) for everyone; a transformative approach to Education and Research for individual and collective learning processes; and a strong emphasis on a recovery driven by an “enhanced social and environmental consciousness and behavior”. The paper analyzes the role of the social economy and social business in the implementation of the NSRA. At the end of the paper, policy implications and final remarks are provided to policy makers. Full article
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Article
A Partial Least-Square Mediation Analysis of the Contribution of Cross-Campus Entrepreneurship Education to Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8697; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168697 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
The present paper presents findings of entrepreneurial intentions of a group of 313 undergraduate students of the University of Oradea, Romania, from different non-economic fields of study (engineering, health, social sciences, mathematics, natural sciences, humanities, and arts), including students from rural areas and [...] Read more.
The present paper presents findings of entrepreneurial intentions of a group of 313 undergraduate students of the University of Oradea, Romania, from different non-economic fields of study (engineering, health, social sciences, mathematics, natural sciences, humanities, and arts), including students from rural areas and other disadvantaged groups enrolled in an entrepreneurship education project financed through European Social Fund. A complex mediation chain is set in place in a net of relationships linking the benefits of entrepreneurial education to entrepreneurship self-efficacy, entrepreneurship attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms in our estimation of entrepreneurial intentions. Using a multigroup analysis, we address the OECD inclusive entrepreneurship perspective of students ‘at-risk’ on the labor market and under-represented in entrepreneurship, identifying how the benefits of entrepreneurship education can be better capitalized by each category. The present paper advocates the necessity to extend entrepreneurship education outside the economics and business specializations. Full article
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Article
Sheltered Employment Centres: Sustainability and Social Value
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7900; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147900 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Sheltered employment centres are social enterprises where at least 70% of their workers have disabilities. They are a way of helping people with disabilities to work in good working conditions and of allowing disadvantaged people to live a full life. However, some people [...] Read more.
Sheltered employment centres are social enterprises where at least 70% of their workers have disabilities. They are a way of helping people with disabilities to work in good working conditions and of allowing disadvantaged people to live a full life. However, some people criticise these businesses for being ghettos where public subsidies are used inefficiently. Our paper aims to test if this criticism is valid by analysing whether these companies provide social and economic value to society in return for public funding and are also economically sustainable over time. Using a sample of 997 Spanish sheltered employment centres, a descriptive analysis of the main variables has been carried out. Additionally, the results of a PART algorithm show the relationship between these companies and economic sustainability. Our findings corroborate that these firms are economically sustainable and, at the same time, socially sustainable. These results highlight the great work that such companies perform for society and the country’s economy. Full article
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Article
Graduate Students’ Behavioral Intention towards Social Entrepreneurship: Role of Social Vision, Innovativeness, Social Proactiveness, and Risk Taking
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6386; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116386 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
In prior studies, several researchers have adopted entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in determining students’ intention toward entrepreneurship, although the application of EO is scant in determining intention toward social entrepreneurship in existing literature. Hence, in consideration of this research gap, the current study empirically [...] Read more.
In prior studies, several researchers have adopted entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in determining students’ intention toward entrepreneurship, although the application of EO is scant in determining intention toward social entrepreneurship in existing literature. Hence, in consideration of this research gap, the current study empirically examines the influence of the dimensions of social entrepreneurial orientation (SEO): social vision, social proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk-taking motive on graduate students’ entrepreneurial intention toward social entrepreneurship-based business start-up. An online-based survey method was used to collect data from a sample of 465 students purposively who were studying at different universities in Bangladesh. A PLS-based SEM was applied to analyze the data and examined the proposed relationships in the conceptual model. The findings reveal that Graduate students’ social proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk-taking motive significantly affect their social entrepreneurial intention. However, students’ social vision does not have direct influence but has indirect influence on social entrepreneurial intention through their social entrepreneurial attitudes. The research contributes to the body of knowledge in the existing social entrepreneurship literature as well as provides practical implications for the policymakers, practitioners, and stakeholders working toward flourishing of social-based entrepreneurship, venture, and start-up. Full article
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Article
Exploring International and Inter-Sector Differences of Social Enterprises in the UK and India
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 5870; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115870 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
Social Entrepreneurship (SE) describes a new entrepreneurial form combining the generation of financial and social value. In recent years, research interest in SE increased in various disciplines with a particular focus on the characteristics of social enterprises. Whereas a clear-cut definition of SE [...] Read more.
Social Entrepreneurship (SE) describes a new entrepreneurial form combining the generation of financial and social value. In recent years, research interest in SE increased in various disciplines with a particular focus on the characteristics of social enterprises. Whereas a clear-cut definition of SE is yet to be found, there is evidence that culture and economy affect and shape features of SE activity. In addition, sector-dependent differences are supposed. Building on Institutional Theory and employing a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, this study sheds light on the existence of international and inter-sector differences by examining 161 UK and Indian social enterprises. A content analysis and analyses of variance were employed and yielded similarities as well as several significant differences on an international and inter-sector level, e.g., regarding innovativeness and the generation of revenue. The current study contributes to a more nuanced picture of the SE landscape by comparing social enterprise characteristics in a developed and a developing country on the one hand and different sectors on the other hand. Furthermore, I highlight the benefits of jointly applying qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Future research should pay more attention to the innate heterogeneity among social enterprises and further consolidate and extend these findings. Full article
Article
Are There Differences and Complementarities between Senior and Young Entrepreneurs? An Intergenerational Perspective
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 5202; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095202 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
Social exclusion related to the unemployment of vulnerable population groups constitutes a crucial limitation to achieving a sustainable world. In particular, young and senior populations have specific characteristics that put them at risk of exclusion from the labor market. This circumstance has motivated [...] Read more.
Social exclusion related to the unemployment of vulnerable population groups constitutes a crucial limitation to achieving a sustainable world. In particular, young and senior populations have specific characteristics that put them at risk of exclusion from the labor market. This circumstance has motivated an attempt to foster cooperation between these age groups to enable them to develop entrepreneurial initiatives that will contribute to close this social vulnerability gap. We approach this topic by focusing on intergenerational entrepreneurship, understood as entrepreneuring projects jointly undertaken by seniors and young adults. The objective of this study was to identify the differences and complementarities between senior and young entrepreneurs with a view to enabling them to develop viable intergenerational entrepreneurial projects, with special emphasis in the motivational push, pull, and blocking factors that affect them. This kind of entrepreneurial initiative fosters knowledge transfer and experience between age groups, promotes job creation and social inclusion, improves a sense of belonging, and, thus, contributes to the construction of a stronger society serving as an engine for sustainable development. Therefore, intergenerational entrepreneurship can be considered a form of social innovation. A mixed-methods approach was utilized in this study, using quantitative data from a questionnaire as a starting point for the characterization and identification of senior and young entrepreneurial profiles, and qualitative data from focus groups, which enabled us to identify complementarities among generations. The results show that there are significant differences between youths and seniors in terms of the motivations and factors that push, pull, or block the decision to form an intergenerational entrepreneurial partnership. These differences can be interpreted as complementarities that can boost intergenerational cooperation to promote social inclusion. Full article
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Article
Upshots of Intrinsic Traits on Social Entrepreneurship Intentions among Young Business Graduates: An Investigation through Moderated-Mediation Model
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 5192; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095192 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Social entrepreneurship has recently become a much-desired area of research for academia, practices, and policymaking. Natural or cognitive personal thoughtfulness like loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion trigger individual intentions towards the social entrepreneurial venture. In this process of individual social entrepreneurial intention personality [...] Read more.
Social entrepreneurship has recently become a much-desired area of research for academia, practices, and policymaking. Natural or cognitive personal thoughtfulness like loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion trigger individual intentions towards the social entrepreneurial venture. In this process of individual social entrepreneurial intention personality trait plays a very vital role, such as entrepreneurship resilience. For this study, a purposive sampling technique was incorporated and data was collected from 631 business and management sciences students. Data is analyzed by SPSS 23 and for the hypothesis testing, we used the bootstrap analysis of Hayes PROCESS v3.5. This study depicts that LKM has a positive significant impact on compassion and no significant impact on social entrepreneurship intentions while resilience strengthens the direct relationship of compassion with social entrepreneurship and the indirect relationship of LKM with social entrepreneurship via compassion. This study contributes to solving the economic and social problems over the globe especially by boosting the LKM and resilience traits so that the young graduate commence social entrepreneurship. This study helps the academician and policymakers to adopt strategies through which they can encourage youth to indulge in social entrepreneurial ventures solve the social problem and decrease unemployment. Full article
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Article
The Sustainable Success and Growth of Social Ventures: Their Internal and External Factors
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 5005; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095005 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
The social venture ecosystem is important for the growth and sustainability of social ventures. This study aims to expand our understanding of the sustainable success and growth of social ventures by analyzing both their internal and external factors using interviews with social venture [...] Read more.
The social venture ecosystem is important for the growth and sustainability of social ventures. This study aims to expand our understanding of the sustainable success and growth of social ventures by analyzing both their internal and external factors using interviews with social venture entrepreneurs and stakeholders in the ecosystem. A qualitative research method is employed to examine the interviewees’ perspectives, and the data were analyzed using the framework of grounded theory. The three-step grounded theory process was performed via open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The study findings are drawn by organizing the outline according to this coding method. Entrepreneurs’ awareness and willingness to solve social problems led to a sense of challenge, and the formation and maintenance of business models in the preparation stage positively affected the performance of social ventures through internal corporate resources and external cooperation. The study is of academic significance in that it presents a diversified dynamic concept of sustainability of social ventures compared to previous studies, which have been only fragmented studies. It also presents a number of managerial implications for sustainable development and the constant growth of social ventures. Full article
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Article
Social Entrepreneurship in Professional Sports: Antecedents and Outcomes from the Consumer Perspective
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031045 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
This study empirically explored antecedents and outcomes related to social entrepreneurship in the context of professional sports from the customer’s perspective. Two parent companies—FuBon and ChinaTrust, both financial holding firms—and two franchises—FuBon Guardians and ChinaTrust Elephants—in the Chinese Professional Baseball League were the [...] Read more.
This study empirically explored antecedents and outcomes related to social entrepreneurship in the context of professional sports from the customer’s perspective. Two parent companies—FuBon and ChinaTrust, both financial holding firms—and two franchises—FuBon Guardians and ChinaTrust Elephants—in the Chinese Professional Baseball League were the research elements in this study to ensure generalizability of the findings of this study. The participants of this study were 268 spectators of a FuBon Guardians game and 201 spectators of a ChinaTrust Elephants game. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Results indicated that innovation and corporate social responsibility positively correlated with social entrepreneurship. Moreover, social entrepreneurship was positively associated with affective commitment to the parent company and sports franchise. Finally, affective commitment to the parent company not only exerted a positive effect on the intention to purchase the products of the parent company but also promoted the intention to purchase licensed merchandise and attend games. Similarly, affective commitment to the sports franchise not only exerted a positive effect on the intention to purchase licensed merchandise and attend games but also promoted the intention to purchase the products of the parent company. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed in this study. Full article
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Article
The Influence of the Ecosystem on the Motivation of Social Entrepreneurs
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020922 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Social entrepreneurs have particular characteristics that differentiate them from commercial entrepreneurs, but research on this differential behavior is still a field in which many questions need to be explored. Specifically, a factor of special relevance is the ecosystem where social entrepreneurial activity takes [...] Read more.
Social entrepreneurs have particular characteristics that differentiate them from commercial entrepreneurs, but research on this differential behavior is still a field in which many questions need to be explored. Specifically, a factor of special relevance is the ecosystem where social entrepreneurial activity takes place. The aim of this study is to analyze how the ecosystem affects the motivation of social entrepreneurs compared to commercial entrepreneurs. This general objective is divided into two specific objectives. First, we analyze how the ecosystem influences the probability of being a social entrepreneur, considering both factors of the entrepreneurial environment and economic and financial factors. Second, we analyze whether the effect of the entrepreneurial ecosystem is determined by the level of development of the country where the activity takes place. The results show that the entrepreneurial ecosystem (the entrepreneurial, financial, and institutional environment) determines the motivation of social entrepreneurs in a different way compared to commercial entrepreneurs. In addition, we find that this influence is different according to the level of development of countries. Full article
Article
Innovation of Startups, the Key to Unlocking Post-Crisis Sustainable Growth in Romanian Entrepreneurial Ecosystem
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020671 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2985
Abstract
This paper aims at identifying the entrepreneurial opportunities for establishing innovative startups during and post COVID-19 crisis. To reach this goal, we conducted an exploratory study based on semi-structured interviews with 168 students who intend to involve themselves in entrepreneurship in their future [...] Read more.
This paper aims at identifying the entrepreneurial opportunities for establishing innovative startups during and post COVID-19 crisis. To reach this goal, we conducted an exploratory study based on semi-structured interviews with 168 students who intend to involve themselves in entrepreneurship in their future career. The research started from the debates in literature regarding the huge negative impact of the COVID-19 crisis on economic development, which can jeopardize the achievement of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The research findings confirm the results of other studies regarding the vulnerability of startups during crises, the reason why they have to refocus on innovative businesses, especially based on information and communication technology (ICT). Such businesses are considered incentives of sustainable development. Other ideas highlighted the importance of social entrepreneurship for the management of startups. It means that startups should develop strong relationships with employees but also with other stakeholders, like companies in the same industry, the public sector, academia, and citizens. In addition, changing the business culture aiming at developing green business could be an inexpensive solution for developing a sustainable entrepreneurial ecosystem. These empirical results have implications for both business and the academic environment, which should cooperate in order to overcome the crisis. Such an approach could be used in the long run in order to manage other crises and to develop sustainable business. Full article
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Article
Technology Transfer for Social Entrepreneurship: Designing Problem-Oriented Innovation Ecosystems
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010020 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
Innovation systems are increasingly oriented towards the solution of societal and environmental problems. Social entrepreneurship can be regarded as a market-based actor, inherently aimed at finding solutions for these problems. The development of technologically advanced social entrepreneurship represents an outcome of problem-oriented innovation [...] Read more.
Innovation systems are increasingly oriented towards the solution of societal and environmental problems. Social entrepreneurship can be regarded as a market-based actor, inherently aimed at finding solutions for these problems. The development of technologically advanced social entrepreneurship represents an outcome of problem-oriented innovation systems, requiring a closer link between social and technological innovation. Nonetheless, the literature has not yet explored a key element of these innovation systems: the technology transfer processes, which may enable social entrepreneurial organizations to act as innovation actors leveraging on technology. This paper investigates the relationship between the technology transfer processes targeting social entrepreneurship and different models of problem-oriented innovation ecosystems. The paper relies on a multiple-case-study design, including two problem-oriented innovation ecosystems in the Italian context, namely, MIND and Torino Social Impact, which are technology transfer projects designed to target social entrepreneurship. Drawing from content analysis of interviews, documents and direct observations, the results stress that the different objectives and contents of technology transfer, coupled with different perceptions of the idiosyncratic features of social entrepreneurship compared to commercial entrepreneurship, fit different ecosystem models in terms of the participating actors, governance and primary orientation to social or economic value generation. Full article
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Article
The Key Drivers of Born-Sustainable Businesses: Evidence from the Italian Fashion Industry
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10237; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410237 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Environmental pollution has become one of the most pressing preoccupations for governments, policymakers, and consumers. For this reason, many companies make constant efforts to comply with international laws and standards on ethics, social responsibility, and environmental protection. Fashion companies are among the main [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution has become one of the most pressing preoccupations for governments, policymakers, and consumers. For this reason, many companies make constant efforts to comply with international laws and standards on ethics, social responsibility, and environmental protection. Fashion companies are among the main producers of pollution because their manufacturing processes result in highly negative outcomes for the environment. In recent years, numerous fashion industries have been transforming their production policies to be sustainable, while others are already born as sustainable businesses. Based on Resource-Based View (RBV) theory and Natural Resource-Based View theory (NRBV), this paper aims at understanding how internal and external factors stimulate born-sustainable businesses operating in the fashion sector, adopting a multiple case study methodology. Our analysis shows that culture, entrepreneurial orientation of the founders, and the proximity of the suppliers among the internal factors, combined with the increase of green consumers as an external factor, foster the creation of green businesses. At the same time, neither current legislation nor the dynamism and competitiveness of markets have influenced the choice of the companies’ founders to start a business based on green production logic. These results reveal the centrality of the founders’ sensitivity toward green strategies to create a sustainable business. The findings have practical implications because they could support regulatory institutions to introduce some incentives that more clearly encourages companies that choose to adopt sustainable business models from the founding, by acting to the internal and external key factors that drive born-sustainable businesses. This study also provides an extension of the existing literature on sustainable born companies, offering researchers useful information on internal and internal factors that promote the adoption of green policies in the fashion industry. Full article
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Review
The B Corp Movement: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052508 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3050
Abstract
This work develops a systematic literature review on the B Corp movement. Fifty articles were identified in the Web of Science and Scopus databases until 2020. Results show that it is an incipient field with great potential. There are two topics repeatedly addressed [...] Read more.
This work develops a systematic literature review on the B Corp movement. Fifty articles were identified in the Web of Science and Scopus databases until 2020. Results show that it is an incipient field with great potential. There are two topics repeatedly addressed in the analyzed publications: the motivations of companies to be certified, and the economic and social effects that occur after certification. Sustainability is currently the reference journal in the field, since it has published a total of five articles. Finally, several lines of future work are proposed, such as the contribution of B Corp companies to the SDGs; the development of case studies on the certification process itself; and the development of methods for measuring social impact. Full article
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