The B Corp Movement: A Systematic Literature Review
- What has the evolution of this theme been over the years regarding the number of articles?
- What are the reference scientific publications in this field?
- Who are the reference authors in this field? What are the institutions that lead the research on this theme?
- What are the main issues that have been investigated?
- What are the main conclusions of the studies?
- What kind of studies have been carried out: theoretical of empirical? What are the investigation methodologies used?
- Which countries are the empirical studies carried out based on? And sectors?
- What are the future lines of research raised in the primary articles?
- What is the relationship between B Corp and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)?
- What are the differences between B Corp and other certifications?
- To meet performance requirements. For this, B Impact Assessment (or BIA) must be carried out, which assesses the interaction of the company with five areas (Table 1). This evaluation is carried out through an online, free and confidential platform in which companies must obtain a minimum of 80 points out of 200 to obtain certification. The weight of the evaluation questions varies by company, depending on size, industry and geographic location.
- To comply with legal requirements, so it is necessary to incorporate into the company’s bylaws the consideration of all stakeholders in decision-making.
- To sign the B Lab term sheet and the Declaration of Interdependence, as well as to pay the annual certification fee. The latter varies depending on the region in which the company is located and, especially, it depends on the company’s turnover.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
- Databases: Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus;
- Document type: research papers;
- Publication language: English or Spanish;
- Period: all years available until 31st December 2020;
- Topic: B Corp;
- Documents that include the term “corporis”.
3.2. Search Strategy and Study Selection
3.3. Data Synthesis and Analysis
4.1. What Has the Evolution of This Theme Been over the Years Regarding the Number of Articles?
4.2. What Are the Reference Scientific Publications in This Field?
4.3. Who Are the Reference Authors in This Field? What Are the Institutions That Lead the Research on This Theme?
4.4. What Are the Main Issues That Have Been Investigated?
4.5. What Are the Main Conclusions of the Studies?
4.6. What Types of Studies Have Been Carried Out: Theoretical of Empirical? What Are the Investigation Methodologies Used?
4.7. Which Countries Are the Empirical Studies Carried out Based on? And Sectors?
4.8. What Are the Future Lines of Research Raised in the Primary Articles?
4.9. What Is the Relationship between B Corp and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)?
4.10. What Are the Differences between B Corp and Other Certifications?
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Governance||It evaluates how the company is structured to pursue and achieve its mission, ethics, responsibility and transparency. It measures whether the company has adopted a social or environmental mission and how it engages its employees, board members and the community. It also assesses employee access to financial information, opportunities for clients to provide feedback and diversity of the company’s governing bodies.|
|Workers||It evaluates the positive material impact of the company on its workers. It measures how the company treats its workers through compensation, benefits, training and opportunities. It also focuses on the work environment within the company, evaluating communication between management and workers, work flexibility, corporate culture and health and safety practices.|
|Community||It evaluates the positive material impact of the company on the communities which it is part of. It measures practices and policies around community services and charitable donations, including whether a company product or service is designed to solve a social problem, such as access to basic services, health or education.|
|Environment||It evaluates the impact and ecological footprint of facilities, materials, emissions, resources and energy use. Its transport and distribution channels and the environmental impact of its supply chain are taken into account. It also measures whether the company’s products or services are designed to solve an environmental problem, including products that help provide renewable energy, preserve resources, reduce waste, promote land conservation, prevent toxic or dangerous substances, as well as educate, measure or consult to solve environmental problems.|
|Customers||It evaluates the positive material impact of the company through the offer of products and services to its clients or beneficiaries. It focuses on whether the business sells products or services that promote public benefit and whether those products or services are intended to serve underserved populations. It also measures whether the product or service is designed to solve a social or environmental problem.|
|Web of Science Core Collection||TOPIC: (“b-corp*”) OR TOPIC: (“b corp*”) NOT TOPIC: (corporis)|
Refined by: LANGUAGES: (ENGLISH OR SPANISH) AND TYPES: (ARTICLE)
|Scopus||TITLE-ABS-KEY (“b-corp*” OR “b corp*” AND NOT “corporis”) AND (LIMIT-TO (DOCTYPE, “ar”)) AND (LIMIT-TO (LANGUAGE, “English”) OR LIMIT-TO (LANGUAGE, “Spanish”))||76|
|Year||Year in which the article was published.|
|Journal||Scientific journal in which the article has been published|
|Author||Name of the author(s) of the article|
|Objective||Objective of the article|
|Conclusion||Conclusions of the article|
|Method||Collection and analysis methodology used in the article|
|Theoretical||Concept study or literature reviews|
|Empirical||Applied studies (case studies, surveys, etc.)|
|Country||If it is an empirical study, the country which the analysis is focused on|
|Sector||If it is an empirical study, the sector which the analysis is focused on|
|Future lines||Future lines raised by the authors of the articles explicitly|
|CSR||Content of the article that refers to the relationship of the B Corp with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)|
|Certification||Content of the article that refers to the relationship of the B Corp with other certifications such as ISO9001 or ISO14001|
|Journal||Number of Papers||JCR/Scopus||Impact Factor||Category and Quartile|
|Journal of Business Venturing||6||JCR||7.59||Business, Q1|
|Scopus||4.98||Business and International Management, Q1; Management of Technology and Innovation, Q1|
|Sustainability||5||JCR||2.57||Green & Sustainable Science & Technology, Q3; Environmental Studies, Q2|
|Scopus||0.58||Energy Engineering and Power Technology, Q2; Environmental Science, Q2; Geography, Planning and Development, Q2; Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Q2; Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Q2|
|Journal of Business Ethics||3||JCR||4.14||Business, Q2; Ethics, Q1|
|Scopus||1.97||Arts and Humanities, Q1; Business and International Management, Q1; Business, Management and Accounting, Q1; Economics and Econometrics, Q1; Law, Q1|
|Author||Number of Papers||Institution||Country|
|Moroz, Peter W||4||University of Regina||Canada|
|Gamble, Edward N||4||Montana State University||USA|
|Parker, Simon C||3||Western University||Canada|
|Stubbs, Wendy||3||Monash University||Australia|
|Nigri, Giorgia||2||Universidad LUMSA||Italy|
|Ruozzi, Alberto||2||Complutense University of Madrid||Spain|
|Gehman, Joel||2||University of Alberta||Canada|
|Torres, Alfonso||2||ESIC Business & Marketing School||Spain|
|Branzei, Oana||2||Western University||Canada|
|Wilburn, Ralph||2||St Edwards University||USA|
|Vicente, Jose Antonio||2||ESIC Business & Marketing School||Spain|
|Lopez, Belen||2||University of Oviedo||Spain|
|Wilburn, Kathleen||2||St Edwards University||USA|
|Topics/Issues||Main Results||Future Research Lines|
|Motivations to become a certified B-Corp company|
|Factors/determinants that influence the certification process|
|Results/Impact derived from the B-Corp certification|
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Diez-Busto, E.; Sanchez-Ruiz, L.; Fernandez-Laviada, A. The B Corp Movement: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2508. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052508
Diez-Busto E, Sanchez-Ruiz L, Fernandez-Laviada A. The B Corp Movement: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability. 2021; 13(5):2508. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052508Chicago/Turabian Style
Diez-Busto, Elsa, Lidia Sanchez-Ruiz, and Ana Fernandez-Laviada. 2021. "The B Corp Movement: A Systematic Literature Review" Sustainability 13, no. 5: 2508. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052508