Special Issue "Paediatric Exercise Physiology"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Craig Williams
Website
Guest Editor
College of Life and Environmental Sciences, St. Luke's Campus, University of Exeter, Heavitree Road, Exeter EX1 2LU, Devon, UK
Interests: paediatric exercise physiology; fatigue; talent development; exercise and chronic disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most people accept that “exercise is good for children” but, considering the number of children worldwide exercising, we know comparatively little, compared to adults, about how specific mechanisms influence health and exercise sports performance. There are considerable obstacles that have slowed the development of pediatric research not least in relation to ethical and methodological considerations. Therefore, advances in the science and clinical application of pediatric exercise physiology have not reached their potential.

Pediatric exercise physiology has application to the role of exercise in the treatment of pediatric chronic diseases, the utilization of physical activity in preventing illness and enhancing well-being and can enhance our understanding of how sports can played safer and more enjoyable for our youth athletes. This special edition within Sports entitled “Pediatric Exercise Physiology” will accept publications of research by various methodologies, including literature reviews, experimental research, and case studies, as applied to youth in a sports, health, or clinical context. Manuscripts which highlight new technologies or methodologies not commonly utilized in pediatric research are particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Craig Williams
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • methodology
  • metabolism
  • growth
  • maturation
  • performance
  • youth athlete
  • chronic disease
  • prepubertal
  • adolescent

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Radiographic Assessment of Anatomic Risk Factors Associated with Acute, Lateral Patellar Dislocation in the Immature Knee
Sports 2016, 4(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020024 - 15 Apr 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
Acute patellar dislocation remains a common injury in both adult and pediatric patients. Non-operative management has been advocated for patients without a history of recurrent instability. Although pathologic thresholds for consideration of operative management have previously been reported in adults, it is largely [...] Read more.
Acute patellar dislocation remains a common injury in both adult and pediatric patients. Non-operative management has been advocated for patients without a history of recurrent instability. Although pathologic thresholds for consideration of operative management have previously been reported in adults, it is largely unknown in children. A retrospective review of all skeletally immature patients diagnosed with acute lateral patellar dislocation who had MRI imaging were included for analysis. An age-based control group was also identified. Six radiographic measurements were compared: lateral trochlear inclination (LTI), trochlear facet asymmetry (TFA), trochlear depth (TD), tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG), sulcus angle (SA) and patellar height ratio. A total of 178 patients were included for analysis (study: n = 108, control: n = 70). The mean age of patients in the study and control groups was 13.7 and 12.1 years respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Study group patients had significant differences in all radiographic measurements including a decreased LTI (p < 0.001), increased TFA (p < 0.001) and SA (p < 0.001). The mean trochlear depth was 3.4 mm and 5.6 mm for patients in the study and control groups respectively (p < 0.001). Study group patients had an increased patellar height ratio (p < 0.001) and TT–TG distance (p < 0.001). Morphologic abnormalities may predispose skeletally immature patients to an increased risk of acute lateral patellar instability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Exercise Physiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Video-Based Visual Training on Decision-Making and Reactive Agility in Adolescent Football Players
Sports 2016, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4010001 - 31 Dec 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
This study investigated the trainability of decision-making and reactive agility via video-based visual training in young athletes. Thirty-four members of a national football academy (age: 14.4 ± 0.1 years) were randomly assigned to a training (VIS; n = 18) or a control group [...] Read more.
This study investigated the trainability of decision-making and reactive agility via video-based visual training in young athletes. Thirty-four members of a national football academy (age: 14.4 ± 0.1 years) were randomly assigned to a training (VIS; n = 18) or a control group (CON; n = 16). In addition to the football training, the VIS completed a video-based visual training twice a week over a period of six weeks during the competition phase. Using the temporal occlusion technique, the players were instructed to react on one-on-one situations shown in 40 videos. The number of successful decisions and the response time were measured with a video-based test. In addition, the reactive-agility sprint test was used. VIS significantly improved the number of successful decisions (22.2 ± 3.6 s vs. 29.8 ± 4.5 s; p < 0.001), response time (0.41 ± 0.10 s vs. 0.31 ± 0.10 s; p = 0.006) and reactive agility (2.22 ± 0.33 s vs. 1.94 ± 0.11 s; p = 0.001) pre- vs. post-training. No significant differences were found for CON. The results have shown that video-based visual training improves the time to make decisions as well as reactive agility sprint-time, accompanied by an increase in successful decisions. It remains to be shown whether or not such training can improve simulated or actual game performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Exercise Physiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reliability of the Single-Visit Field Test of Critical Speed in Trained and Untrained Adolescents
Sports 2015, 3(4), 358-368; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports3040358 - 08 Dec 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
Recent studies in adults have shown that the critical intensity during running and cycling estimated from three prediction trials interspersed by 30 min is valid and reliable. To establish the reliability of the single-visit field test to determine critical speed (CS) and the [...] Read more.
Recent studies in adults have shown that the critical intensity during running and cycling estimated from three prediction trials interspersed by 30 min is valid and reliable. To establish the reliability of the single-visit field test to determine critical speed (CS) and the distance above critical speed (D′) in adolescents, 29 trained and 14 untrained participants (mean ± SD age: 17.5 ± 0.5 years) performed three tests on a 400-m outdoor track separated by 48 h. Each test consisted of three distances selected to result in finishing times between 2 and 15 min that must be completed as fast as possible. CS and D′ were modeled using the linear 1/time model (Speed = D′(1/t) + CS). While the coefficient of variation (CV) of CS was between 2.4% and 4.3%, the CV of D′ was 9.3% to 13.6%. Also the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.919 to 0.983 for CS and from 0.325 to 0.828 for D′. The results show that the single-visit field test provides reliable estimates of CS but not D′ in trained and untrained adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Exercise Physiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Recommendations for Recruiting and Retaining Adolescent Girls in Chronic Exercise (Training) Research Studies
Sports 2015, 3(3), 219-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports3030219 - 26 Aug 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
Extensive challenges are often encountered when recruiting participants to chronic exercise (training) studies. High participant burden during chronic exercise training programmes can result in low uptake to and/or poor compliance with the study. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify factors [...] Read more.
Extensive challenges are often encountered when recruiting participants to chronic exercise (training) studies. High participant burden during chronic exercise training programmes can result in low uptake to and/or poor compliance with the study. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify factors affecting adolescent girls’ recruitment and adherence to chronic exercise training research studies. Twenty-six adolescent girls (aged 12 to 15 years) participated in one of five focus groups discussing recruitment and retention to exercise physiology research involving a chronic exercise training programme. A thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and eight final themes were inductively identified. Seven evidence-based practical recommendations are suggested to improve the recruitment and retention of participants for prospective, chronic exercise training studies. Successful recruitment requires: (i) the defining of exercise-related terms; (ii) appropriate choice of recruitment material; and (iii) an understanding of participant motivations. Retention strategies include: (iv) regular monitoring of participant motives; and (v) small groups which foster peer and researcher support. Finally, (vi) friendship and ability groups were favoured in addition to (vii) a variety of activities to promote adherence to an exercise training programme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Exercise Physiology)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
The Influence of Exercise Training on Quality of Life and Psychosocial Functioning in Children with Congenital Heart Disease:A Review of Intervention Studies
Sports 2017, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5010013 - 10 Feb 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in [...] Read more.
Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with severe congenital heart disease. Participation in an exercise program among young people with complex congenital heart disease seemed to have positive effects on quality of life and passive leisure time spent. However, more effects of the exercise programs may have been expected. For future research it is important to critically evaluate the content of the exercise programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Exercise Physiology)
Open AccessReview
Is There a Progressive Withdrawal of Physiological Protections against High-Intensity Exercise-Induced Fatigue during Puberty?
Sports 2015, 3(4), 346-357; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports3040346 - 04 Dec 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
Puberty is characterized by a large number of physiological modifications that translate into increased neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise in adolescents compared to prepubertal children. This greater neuromuscular fatigue in adolescents could be attributed to peripheral (i.e., muscular) and central ( [...] Read more.
Puberty is characterized by a large number of physiological modifications that translate into increased neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise in adolescents compared to prepubertal children. This greater neuromuscular fatigue in adolescents could be attributed to peripheral (i.e., muscular) and central (i.e., nervous) factors that change through puberty. Among the peripheral changes are muscle mass, fiber type composition, energy metabolism and musculo-tendinous stiffness. Among the central modifications are the voluntary activation level, the antagonist co-activation and a differential interplay between central and peripheral fatigue. The objective of this review article will be to underline the importance of these factors on the development of neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise throughout puberty and to highlight that the adolescents could be physiologically less protected against fatiguing high-intensity exercise than their prepubertal counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Exercise Physiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Somnolent Youth-Sleep and the Influence of Exercise: A Narrative Review
Sports 2015, 3(2), 116-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports3020116 - 23 Jun 2015
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sleep is crucial to the physiological and psychological development of youth. The implications of insufficient sleep on learning and school performance are well documented. However, adequate sleep often goes unmet due to a combination of biological, societal, and environmental factors, especially during adolescence. [...] Read more.
Sleep is crucial to the physiological and psychological development of youth. The implications of insufficient sleep on learning and school performance are well documented. However, adequate sleep often goes unmet due to a combination of biological, societal, and environmental factors, especially during adolescence. In the present review, the changes to adolescent sleep patterns, and its consequences on cognition and learning are briefly explored. We then review the empirical literature of the role of exercise in regulating adolescent sleep patterns, and its potential mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Exercise Physiology)
Back to TopTop